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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  2. M phase
  3. interphase
  4. kinetochore
  5. chromosome numbers
  1. a mitosis
  2. b Fruit fly - 8 total chromosomes
    Adder's tongue fern - 1262 chromosomes
  3. c In actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)
  4. d they have found their partners and come close together. Then, proteins are deposited which create the synaptonemal complex. This is in the form of lateral elements between the chromosomes and a center element that acts as a zipper and fuses them together. There are certain conditions where the synaptonemal complex but physical exchange of chromosomal sections occurs (crossing over)
    there are 2 pairs of sister chromatids at the zygotene phase.
  5. e bound to the centromere of each individual chromosome

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. a double fertilization

    the endosperm (which uses a large amount of plant resources) will develop only when an egg cell has been fertilized

    After fertilization is complete
    The ovule develops into a seed
    The surrounding ovary develops into a fruit
    Which encloses one or more seeds
  2. The production of egg cells

    In female animals, it occurs in the ovaries

    Early in development, diploid oogonia produce diploid primary oocytes
    In humans, for example, about 1 million primary occytes per ovary are produced before birth

    Takes place in the ovaries
    Start with the oogonia (2n) undergoes mitosis and creates primary oocytes (Diploid)
    These enter into meiotic 1 division. The division is stalled at prophase 1
    It waits under the female is sexually mature to proceed to the rest of the stages

    The primary oocytes initiate meiosis I
    However, they enter into a dormant phase
    They are arrested in Prophase I until the female becomes sexually mature
    At puberty, primary oocytes are periodically activated to progress through meiosis I
    In humans, one oocyte per month is activated
    The division in meiosis I is asymmetric producing two haploid cells of unequal size
    A large secondary oocyte oocyte
    A small polar body

    The secondary oocyte enters meiosis II but is quickly arrested in it
    It is released into the oviduct
    An event called ovulation
    If the secondary oocyte is fertilized
    The haploid egg and sperm nuclei then fuse to created the diploid nucleus of a new individual
    During the 1st meiotic division, it is not symmetrical.
    1 secondary oocyte (Very large)
    1 polar body ( will sometimes undergo 2nd meiotic division and sometimes it wont)
    Can have 1 egg cell and 1 polar body or 1 egg cell or 3 polar bodies
  3. 1) Nuclear envelope dissociates into smaller vesicles
    2)Centrosomes separate to opposite poles
    3) The mitotic spindle apparatus is formed
    Composed of mircotubules (MTs)

    Condensation of chromosome, compaction BEGINS as prophase
    All of the euchromatic regions will become heterochromatic
    Nucleolous synthesize ribosomalRNA - as chromosomes compact, the nucleolous disappears
    Nuclear membrane is converted into vesicles
    Different microtubulues are made - spindle apparatus
    Aster microtubulues - propagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position
    Polar micro tubulues - polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other
    Kinetochore microtubulue - come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage
  4. subdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase
  5. A long flagellum
    A head
    The head contains a haploid nucleus
    Capped by the acrosome

5 True/False questions

  1. Haploid dominant speciesb/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair


  2. LEPTOTENEareas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.


  3. prophase I meiosisMitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.


  4. PACHYTENEEnzymes allow for crossing over. There is a recombination nodule. Enzymes identify areas of homology and allow for exchange.


  5. G1 phasea cell prepares to divide
    The cell reaches a restriction point and is committed on a pathway to cell division