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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Eukaryotic Chromosomes
  2. metaphase
  3. prophase I meiosis
  4. DIAKINESIS
  5. Polar micro tubulues
  1. a 1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole
  2. b Most eukaryotic species are diploid
    Have two sets of chromosomes
    Members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues
    The two homologues form a homologous pair
  3. c Prophase I most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:
    3) PACHYTENE:
    4) DIPLOTENE:
    5) DIAKINESIS:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.
  4. d polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus
  5. e all of the synaptonemal complexes dissolve and the sister chromatids are separated. From now on, these 2 pairs are always going to move in pairs. The last part of chromosomal changes occurs here in diakinesis. This sister chromatids do not look like the original sister chromatids. This is why we have variation

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Are nearly identical in size
    Have the same banding pattern and centromere location
    Have the same genes
    But not necessarily the same alleles
  2. 1)Chromosomes are decondensed
    2)By the end of this phase, the chromosomes have already replicated
    3)The centrosome divides

    Chromosomes are NOT condensed
    Interphase is characterized by g1
    It is accumulating proteins
    There are DECONDENSED chromosomes
    The cell increases in density
    Replication of DNA become sister chromatids
    Replication of organelles (kineotochore deposition)
    Microtubulue organizing centers (centrosomes replicate)
  3. subdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase
  4. Fruit fly - 8 total chromosomes
    Adder's tongue fern - 1262 chromosomes
  5. In many animal species, chromosomes play a role in sex determinationThe sex chromosomes are designated Z and W
    Males contain two Z chromosomes
    Females have one X and one Y chromosome
    Haplo-diploid system
    Males are known as the drones
    They are haploid
    Females include the worker bees and queen bees
    They are diploid
    Xx and Xy in humans
    Xx and Xo in insects (ratio of chromosomes to autosomes, ratio of 1 = female, .5 = male)
    ZZ (male) ZW female (fish)
    Fertilization vs. parthenogenesis (ants, bees, wasps) - males are always haploid, females are diploid.
    Environmental factors that influence sex alligators
    At a 33 degrees it is males
    Below 33 it creates females

5 True/False questions

  1. anaphaseThe connection holding the sister chromatids together is broken
    Each chromatid, now an individual chromosome, is linked to only one pole
    As anaphase proceeds
    Kinetochore MTs shorten
    Chromosomes move to opposite poles
    Polar MTs lengthen
    Poles themselves move further away from each other
    The kinetochore microtubulues de polymerize (shorten), the centromeres are then under a lot of tension and split. This divides each pair into individual chromosomes.46 pairs of sister chromatids = 46 individual chromosomes
    2 bunches of chromosomes

          

  2. S phasewhere chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids

          

  3. G2 phasea cell prepares to divide
    The cell reaches a restriction point and is committed on a pathway to cell division

          

  4. Diploid dominant speciesb/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair

          

  5. prometaphase1)Spindle fibers interact with the sister chromatids
    2) Kinetochore microtubules grow from the two poles
    If they make contact with a kinetochore, the sister chromatid is "captured"
    If not, the microtubule depolymerizes and retracts to the centrosome
    3)The two kinetochores on a pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore MTs on opposite poles
    Functioning of spindle apparatus is complete in prometaphase
    Clasping the kinetochore proteins on either side of the sister chromatids is the most important part.
    Sister chromatids must be connected to both poles

          

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