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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. sperm structure
  2. homologous pair
  3. mitosis vs meiosis
  4. S phase
  5. binary fission
  1. a Are nearly identical in size
    Have the same banding pattern and centromere location
    Have the same genes
    But not necessarily the same alleles
  2. b where chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids
  3. c A long flagellum
    A head
    The head contains a haploid nucleus
    Capped by the acrosome
  4. d prokaryotes reproduce via binary fission: Prior to division, the bacterial cell replicates its DNA
    Then the cell divides into two daughter cells by a process termed binary fission

    1)Cell increases in density
    2)Gets a signal for DNA to divide
    3)n prokaryotic organisms, dna is naked DNA, it is not enclosed in a membrane bound nucleus
    4)Once the cell reaches maximum density, it divides into 2 clusters of circular DNA
    5)Then there is septum formation
    6)This requires FTSZ protein - filamenting temperature sensitive mutant z

    First identified in a mutant form where the circular form is elongated and did not form the septum well
    This protein is the first one deposited in the form of the ring in the middle of the bacterial cell (a ring) acts as a motor to recruit 9 other proteins to form septum
    Then it divides into 2 daughter cells.
    Conjugation + plasma transfer = genetic recombination in prokaryotes
  5. e Mitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. In actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)
  2. a double fertilization

    the endosperm (which uses a large amount of plant resources) will develop only when an egg cell has been fertilized

    After fertilization is complete
    The ovule develops into a seed
    The surrounding ovary develops into a fruit
    Which encloses one or more seeds
  3. The field of genetics that involves the microscopic examination of chromosomes
    A cytogeneticist typically examines the chromosomal composition of a particular cell or organism
  4. subdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase
  5. 1)Spindle fibers interact with the sister chromatids
    2) Kinetochore microtubules grow from the two poles
    If they make contact with a kinetochore, the sister chromatid is "captured"
    If not, the microtubule depolymerizes and retracts to the centrosome
    3)The two kinetochores on a pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore MTs on opposite poles
    Functioning of spindle apparatus is complete in prometaphase
    Clasping the kinetochore proteins on either side of the sister chromatids is the most important part.
    Sister chromatids must be connected to both poles

5 True/False questions

  1. Diploid dominant speciesb/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair

          

  2. Meiosis IIFor a diploid organism with 6 chromosomes, mitosis begins with 12 chromatids joined as 6 pairs of suster chromatids
    Meiosis 2 begins w/ 6 chromatids joined as 3 pairs of sister chromatids
    THERE IS NO S PHASE
    Already in the form of sister chromatids

    PROMETAPHSE- each pair of S chromatid is connected to either pole.
    Then we have metaphase - a single row of very differenlt looking s. chromatids.
    Anaphase - each pair of s. chromatids becomes a chromosome
    Telophase 2, cytokensis
    Results in 4 cells as 2 rounds of meiodid
    In the book it says 4 daughter cells, but cells from meiosis are NOT DAUGHTER CELLS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL. They are gametes.

          

  3. kinetochoreIn actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)

          

  4. prophase1) Nuclear envelope dissociates into smaller vesicles
    2)Centrosomes separate to opposite poles
    3) The mitotic spindle apparatus is formed
    Composed of mircotubules (MTs)

    Condensation of chromosome, compaction BEGINS as prophase
    All of the euchromatic regions will become heterochromatic
    Nucleolous synthesize ribosomalRNA - as chromosomes compact, the nucleolous disappears
    Nuclear membrane is converted into vesicles
    Different microtubulues are made - spindle apparatus
    Aster microtubulues - propagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position
    Polar micro tubulues - polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other
    Kinetochore microtubulue - come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage

          

  5. chromosome numbersFruit fly - 8 total chromosomes
    Adder's tongue fern - 1262 chromosomes