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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. DIPLOTENE
  2. interphase nucleus
  3. Polar micro tubulues
  4. How are homologues identified
  5. metaphase
  1. a areas of contact that persist and keep moving toward the ends are called chiasmata.
  2. b Size, position of centromere, and banding patterns
    They are not identical to each other
    Although we have the same genes, we have different alleles.
  3. c polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus
  4. d 1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole
  5. e 1)Chromosomes are decondensed
    2)By the end of this phase, the chromosomes have already replicated
    3)The centrosome divides

    Chromosomes are NOT condensed
    Interphase is characterized by g1
    It is accumulating proteins
    There are DECONDENSED chromosomes
    The cell increases in density
    Replication of DNA become sister chromatids
    Replication of organelles (kineotochore deposition)
    Microtubulue organizing centers (centrosomes replicate)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Meiosis begins after a cell has progressed through interphase of the cell cycle - gametocyte
    Meiosis involves two successive divisions
    These are termed meiosis 1 and 2
    Each of these is subdivided into
    Prophase
    Prometaphase
    Metaphase
    Anaphase
    Telophase

    Prophase I is further subdividd into periods known as
    Leptotene
    Zygotene
    Pachytene
    Diplotene
    Diaknesis

    NO S PHASE - b/c you do not need another round of synthetic phase
  2. The connection holding the sister chromatids together is broken
    Each chromatid, now an individual chromosome, is linked to only one pole
    As anaphase proceeds
    Kinetochore MTs shorten
    Chromosomes move to opposite poles
    Polar MTs lengthen
    Poles themselves move further away from each other
    The kinetochore microtubulues de polymerize (shorten), the centromeres are then under a lot of tension and split. This divides each pair into individual chromosomes.46 pairs of sister chromatids = 46 individual chromosomes
    2 bunches of chromosomes
  3. Mitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.
  4. The production of sperm
    In male animals, it occurs in the testes
    A diploid spermatogonium cell divides mitotically to produce two cells
    The primary spermatocyte progresses through meiosis I and II
    Testes undergo spermatogenesis
    Spermatogonia 2n (germ cells)
    First division that takes place to the spermatogonia creates 1 cell that is a spermatogonia and the other is a primary spermatocyte
    The primary spermatocyte is the first one that undergoes meiosis
  5. Chromosomes reach their respective poles and decondense
    Nuclear membrane reforms to form two separate nuclei
    In most cases, mitosis is quickly followed by cytokinesis
    Mitosis and cytokinesis ultimately produce two daughter cells having the same number of chromosomes as the mother cell
    The two daughter cells are genetically identical to each other
    Barring rare mutations
    Reverse prophase = telophase
    Decondensation
    Reformation of the nucleolous and nuclear membrane
    No polar microtubulues or spindle apparatus, there are 2 nuclei


    Cytokeneisis
    - Actin below the plasma membrane. They will start overlapping and will form a cleavage furrow which is going to move into the cell and pinch it off.
    Plant cells have a cell wall so there is no "pinching." the cell wall material will be deposited as a cell plate into the middle of the cell which will extend out and touch the plasma membrane, initiating middle lamina deposition (negatively charged pectins)

    Results in 2 daughter cells that are identical in genetic material

5 True/False questions

  1. DIAKINESISsubdivided into five phases:
    1) Prophase
    2) Prometaphase
    3) Metaphase
    4) Anaphase
    5) Telophase

          

  2. prophase1) Nuclear envelope dissociates into smaller vesicles
    2)Centrosomes separate to opposite poles
    3) The mitotic spindle apparatus is formed
    Composed of mircotubules (MTs)

    Condensation of chromosome, compaction BEGINS as prophase
    All of the euchromatic regions will become heterochromatic
    Nucleolous synthesize ribosomalRNA - as chromosomes compact, the nucleolous disappears
    Nuclear membrane is converted into vesicles
    Different microtubulues are made - spindle apparatus
    Aster microtubulues - propagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position
    Polar micro tubulues - polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other
    Kinetochore microtubulue - come and binds to kinetochore, it is not yet bound in the prophase stage, it is just moving towards the kinetochore protein at this stage

          

  3. Aster microtubuluespropagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position

          

  4. Eukaryotic Chromosomeshaploid sperm nucleus in hea

          

  5. S phasewhere chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids