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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. interphase nucleus
  2. kinetochore
  3. mitosis vs meiosis
  4. prophase I meiosis
  5. ZYGOTENE
  1. a Mitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.
  2. b Prophase I most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:
    3) PACHYTENE:
    4) DIPLOTENE:
    5) DIAKINESIS:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.
  3. c they have found their partners and come close together. Then, proteins are deposited which create the synaptonemal complex. This is in the form of lateral elements between the chromosomes and a center element that acts as a zipper and fuses them together. There are certain conditions where the synaptonemal complex but physical exchange of chromosomal sections occurs (crossing over)
    there are 2 pairs of sister chromatids at the zygotene phase.
  4. d 1)Chromosomes are decondensed
    2)By the end of this phase, the chromosomes have already replicated
    3)The centrosome divides

    Chromosomes are NOT condensed
    Interphase is characterized by g1
    It is accumulating proteins
    There are DECONDENSED chromosomes
    The cell increases in density
    Replication of DNA become sister chromatids
    Replication of organelles (kineotochore deposition)
    Microtubulue organizing centers (centrosomes replicate)
  5. e bound to the centromere of each individual chromosome

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. X linked influence of characters and genes
    Dorosophila
    Embryogenesis and changes over time
    Lamarck - theory of acquired inheritance
    If you don't use something it is vestigial
    Nictiating membrane
    Morgan thought if he would but the flies in a dark room, their eyes will atrophy.
    This was not true
    He exposed them to radiation
    1 male white eyed fly was found
    This is an example of discovery based research
    Now he must conduct hypothesis based research
    The white eyed fly was mated with true breeding red eyed females
    All of the f1 were red eyed
    F1 mated - you will not get a white eyed female
    4.4 red : 1 white
    Gene has effect one some of the population but not all semi lethal gene
    White eyed condition is known as semi lethality
    There is an influence pattern and he thoughtit was on the x chromosome
    He took a white eyed male and crossed with with a female
    1.5:1:1
  2. all of the synaptonemal complexes dissolve and the sister chromatids are separated. From now on, these 2 pairs are always going to move in pairs. The last part of chromosomal changes occurs here in diakinesis. This sister chromatids do not look like the original sister chromatids. This is why we have variation
  3. polymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus
  4. The field of genetics that involves the microscopic examination of chromosomes
    A cytogeneticist typically examines the chromosomal composition of a particular cell or organism
  5. ANAPHASE
    The two pairs of sister chromatids separarate from each other. However the connection that holds sister chromatids together does not break
    Polar MT - polymerize
    Kinetochore MT - depolarize
    Each pair for sister chromatids move towards the poles.
    You get a reduction in the number of chromosomes
    Sister chromatids reach their respective poles and decondense. The nuclear envelope reforms to produce 2 separate nuclei.
    Only 1 copy of each type of chromosome on either pole
    1 copy of each type of

    Chromosome complement looks different from the original cell.

5 True/False questions

  1. Haploid dominant speciesspends most of its life in its haploid state
    Fungi

          

  2. Gamete Formation in Plantsa double fertilization

    the endosperm (which uses a large amount of plant resources) will develop only when an egg cell has been fertilized

    After fertilization is complete
    The ovule develops into a seed
    The surrounding ovary develops into a fruit
    Which encloses one or more seeds

          

  3. metaphase1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole

          

  4. DIPLOTENEcompaction of chromosome, homologous partner seek for one another (this occurs towards the end of leptotene). The first major change is compaction.

          

  5. mitosisMeiosis begins after a cell has progressed through interphase of the cell cycle - gametocyte
    Meiosis involves two successive divisions
    These are termed meiosis 1 and 2
    Each of these is subdivided into
    Prophase
    Prometaphase
    Metaphase
    Anaphase
    Telophase

    Prophase I is further subdividd into periods known as
    Leptotene
    Zygotene
    Pachytene
    Diplotene
    Diaknesis

    NO S PHASE - b/c you do not need another round of synthetic phase