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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. G2 phase
  2. prometaphase
  3. PACHYTENE
  4. Meiosis II
  5. Eukaryotic Chromosomes
  1. a Enzymes allow for crossing over. There is a recombination nodule. Enzymes identify areas of homology and allow for exchange.
  2. b Most eukaryotic species are diploid
    Have two sets of chromosomes
    Members of a pair of chromosomes are called homologues
    The two homologues form a homologous pair
  3. c 1)Spindle fibers interact with the sister chromatids
    2) Kinetochore microtubules grow from the two poles
    If they make contact with a kinetochore, the sister chromatid is "captured"
    If not, the microtubule depolymerizes and retracts to the centrosome
    3)The two kinetochores on a pair of sister chromatids are attached to kinetochore MTs on opposite poles
    Functioning of spindle apparatus is complete in prometaphase
    Clasping the kinetochore proteins on either side of the sister chromatids is the most important part.
    Sister chromatids must be connected to both poles
  4. d the cell accumulates the materials that are necessary for nuclear and cell division
  5. e For a diploid organism with 6 chromosomes, mitosis begins with 12 chromatids joined as 6 pairs of suster chromatids
    Meiosis 2 begins w/ 6 chromatids joined as 3 pairs of sister chromatids
    THERE IS NO S PHASE
    Already in the form of sister chromatids

    PROMETAPHSE- each pair of S chromatid is connected to either pole.
    Then we have metaphase - a single row of very differenlt looking s. chromatids.
    Anaphase - each pair of s. chromatids becomes a chromosome
    Telophase 2, cytokensis
    Results in 4 cells as 2 rounds of meiodid
    In the book it says 4 daughter cells, but cells from meiosis are NOT DAUGHTER CELLS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL. They are gametes.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. One purpose of cell division is asexual reproduction
    A second important reason for cell division is multicellularity
    Plants, animals and certain fungi are derived from a single cell that has undergone repeated cell divisions
    For example
    Humans start out as a single fertilized egg
    End up as an adult with several trillion cells
  2. compaction of chromosome, homologous partner seek for one another (this occurs towards the end of leptotene). The first major change is compaction.
  3. where chromosomes are replicated
    The two copies of a replicated chromosome are termed chromatids
    They are joined at the centromere to form a pair of sister chromatids
  4. Size, position of centromere, and banding patterns
    They are not identical to each other
    Although we have the same genes, we have different alleles.
  5. mitosis

5 True/False questions

  1. Aster microtubuluespropagate towards palama membrane, hold the 2 centrosomes in position

          

  2. interphase nucleusIn actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)

          

  3. DIAKINESISall of the synaptonemal complexes dissolve and the sister chromatids are separated. From now on, these 2 pairs are always going to move in pairs. The last part of chromosomal changes occurs here in diakinesis. This sister chromatids do not look like the original sister chromatids. This is why we have variation

          

  4. Relationship between genetic trait and inheritance of a sex chromosomeX linked influence of characters and genes
    Dorosophila
    Embryogenesis and changes over time
    Lamarck - theory of acquired inheritance
    If you don't use something it is vestigial
    Nictiating membrane
    Morgan thought if he would but the flies in a dark room, their eyes will atrophy.
    This was not true
    He exposed them to radiation
    1 male white eyed fly was found
    This is an example of discovery based research
    Now he must conduct hypothesis based research
    The white eyed fly was mated with true breeding red eyed females
    All of the f1 were red eyed
    F1 mated - you will not get a white eyed female
    4.4 red : 1 white
    Gene has effect one some of the population but not all semi lethal gene
    White eyed condition is known as semi lethality
    There is an influence pattern and he thoughtit was on the x chromosome
    He took a white eyed male and crossed with with a female
    1.5:1:1

          

  5. telophase and cytokinesisChromosomes reach their respective poles and decondense
    Nuclear membrane reforms to form two separate nuclei
    In most cases, mitosis is quickly followed by cytokinesis
    Mitosis and cytokinesis ultimately produce two daughter cells having the same number of chromosomes as the mother cell
    The two daughter cells are genetically identical to each other
    Barring rare mutations
    Reverse prophase = telophase
    Decondensation
    Reformation of the nucleolous and nuclear membrane
    No polar microtubulues or spindle apparatus, there are 2 nuclei


    Cytokeneisis
    - Actin below the plasma membrane. They will start overlapping and will form a cleavage furrow which is going to move into the cell and pinch it off.
    Plant cells have a cell wall so there is no "pinching." the cell wall material will be deposited as a cell plate into the middle of the cell which will extend out and touch the plasma membrane, initiating middle lamina deposition (negatively charged pectins)

    Results in 2 daughter cells that are identical in genetic material