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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Meiosis II
  2. Diploid dominant species
  3. Anaphase I
  4. Purpose for division
  5. metaphase
  1. a 1)Pairs of sister chromatids align themselves along a plane called the metaphase plate
    2) Each pair of chromatids is attached to both poles by kinetochore microtubules
    3)Arrange in a single row on the equatorial, metaphase plate

    Arrangement of maternal and paternal chromosomes doesn't matter
    Make sure each pair is connected to either pole
  2. b One purpose of cell division is asexual reproduction
    A second important reason for cell division is multicellularity
    Plants, animals and certain fungi are derived from a single cell that has undergone repeated cell divisions
    For example
    Humans start out as a single fertilized egg
    End up as an adult with several trillion cells
  3. c b/c all of our somatic cells are diploid mitosis dominates
    Each type of chromosome has 2 copies, 1 maternal homologue and 1 paternal homologue
    Homologous pair
  4. d For a diploid organism with 6 chromosomes, mitosis begins with 12 chromatids joined as 6 pairs of suster chromatids
    Meiosis 2 begins w/ 6 chromatids joined as 3 pairs of sister chromatids
    Already in the form of sister chromatids

    PROMETAPHSE- each pair of S chromatid is connected to either pole.
    Then we have metaphase - a single row of very differenlt looking s. chromatids.
    Anaphase - each pair of s. chromatids becomes a chromosome
    Telophase 2, cytokensis
    Results in 4 cells as 2 rounds of meiodid
    In the book it says 4 daughter cells, but cells from meiosis are NOT DAUGHTER CELLS BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT GENETICALLY IDENTICAL. They are gametes.
    The two pairs of sister chromatids separarate from each other. However the connection that holds sister chromatids together does not break
    Polar MT - polymerize
    Kinetochore MT - depolarize
    Each pair for sister chromatids move towards the poles.
    You get a reduction in the number of chromosomes
    Sister chromatids reach their respective poles and decondense. The nuclear envelope reforms to produce 2 separate nuclei.
    Only 1 copy of each type of chromosome on either pole
    1 copy of each type of

    Chromosome complement looks different from the original cell.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Prophase I most important division: chromosomes that align along themselves.
    Most common changes: compaction and condensation of chromosomes
    1) LEPTOTENE -
    2) ZYGOTENE:

    Tetrads = 2 centromeres = bivalent stage

    Non sister chromatids = association is between maternal and paternal homologues that crossing over creates variation.
  2. compaction of chromosome, homologous partner seek for one another (this occurs towards the end of leptotene). The first major change is compaction.
  3. A long flagellum
    A head
    The head contains a haploid nucleus
    Capped by the acrosome
  4. In actively dividing cells, G1, S and G2 are collectively known as interphase
    A cell may remain for long periods of time in the G0 phase
    A cell in this phase has
    Either postponed making a
    decision to divide
    Or made the decision to never
    divide again
    Terminally differentiated cells
    (e.g. nerve cells)
  5. Interphase I
    Early Prophase I
    Late Prophase I
    Prometaphase I

5 True/False questions

  1. binary fissionprokaryotes reproduce via binary fission: Prior to division, the bacterial cell replicates its DNA
    Then the cell divides into two daughter cells by a process termed binary fission

    1)Cell increases in density
    2)Gets a signal for DNA to divide
    3)n prokaryotic organisms, dna is naked DNA, it is not enclosed in a membrane bound nucleus
    4)Once the cell reaches maximum density, it divides into 2 clusters of circular DNA
    5)Then there is septum formation
    6)This requires FTSZ protein - filamenting temperature sensitive mutant z

    First identified in a mutant form where the circular form is elongated and did not form the septum well
    This protein is the first one deposited in the form of the ring in the middle of the bacterial cell (a ring) acts as a motor to recruit 9 other proteins to form septum
    Then it divides into 2 daughter cells.
    Conjugation + plasma transfer = genetic recombination in prokaryotes


  2. Relationship between genetic trait and inheritance of a sex chromosomeX linked influence of characters and genes
    Embryogenesis and changes over time
    Lamarck - theory of acquired inheritance
    If you don't use something it is vestigial
    Nictiating membrane
    Morgan thought if he would but the flies in a dark room, their eyes will atrophy.
    This was not true
    He exposed them to radiation
    1 male white eyed fly was found
    This is an example of discovery based research
    Now he must conduct hypothesis based research
    The white eyed fly was mated with true breeding red eyed females
    All of the f1 were red eyed
    F1 mated - you will not get a white eyed female
    4.4 red : 1 white
    Gene has effect one some of the population but not all semi lethal gene
    White eyed condition is known as semi lethality
    There is an influence pattern and he thoughtit was on the x chromosome
    He took a white eyed male and crossed with with a female


  3. ZYGOTENEthey have found their partners and come close together. Then, proteins are deposited which create the synaptonemal complex. This is in the form of lateral elements between the chromosomes and a center element that acts as a zipper and fuses them together. There are certain conditions where the synaptonemal complex but physical exchange of chromosomal sections occurs (crossing over)
    there are 2 pairs of sister chromatids at the zygotene phase.


  4. mitosis vs meiosisMitosis - produces 2 diploid daughter cells
    Meiosis produces 4 haploid d. cells
    Mitosis produces daughter cells that are genetically identical
    Meiosis produces gametes (resulting cells) that are not genetically identical - gametes
    The cells contain only 1 homologous chromosome from each pair.


  5. Aster microtubuluespolymerize toward chromosomes. Push centrosomes away from each other, positioning spindle apparatus