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Cross-sectional research

A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of 3 year old, 6 year old, and 9 year old children to bring the kids to the lab, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared amounts of food eaten by the three different ages. This is an example of:

A cohort effect

Pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. According to the multicontextual characteristics of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to:


A group of people who are born within a few years of one another.


This notion refers to the ability of human traits to be molded during development.

Critical period of development

When certain things MUST occur for normal development.

Negative correlation

The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The type of correlation between his food intake and his hunger is a:

Qualitative research

Research data that is open-ended and not easily transferable to numbers

Cognitive disequilibrium

Piaget's term for when a new experience or idea does not fit a person's existing understanding

Longitudinal research

If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:

A cultural phenomenon

The fact that American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents is an example of:


This term refers to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual's or specie's genetic inheritance


The notion that development involves gains and losses that do not always occur in a straight line exemplifies this characteristic of life-span development:


The cognitive process that occurs when (for example) you see a man from the nation of Fiji, but have never seen someone from their before - yet you still recognize him as a human being is called:

The importance of nature and nurture in development

The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. So, Nurture affects Nature (genes).

One aspect of Piaget's view of cognitive development

The idea that cognitive development follows age-related changes in understanding.


The cognitive process of adjusting our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, as described by Piaget.

Threshold effect

The level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful is known as:

Alcoholism may not appear in his phenotype

Henry was adopted and is genetically predisposed toward alcoholism. However, his adoptive family does not drink; they actively avoid alcohol for religious reasons. Given Henry's genetic potential:


The actual expression of genetic traits

"Genes are not destiny"

An important thing to remember when considering that genes are a major influence on behaviors, disease, and disorders:

A truth about monozygotic twins

Even though they begin with identical genotypes, their phenotypes may differ at birth

Either do not begin to develop or are aborted spontaneously

Most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems:

Recessive gene

A gene whose influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene

Fragile X syndrom

The most common form of inherited mental retardation

Heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes

The 5 characteristics evaluated by the Apgar scale:

5 1/2 pounds

Low birthweight is defined internationally as a body weight of less than:

An ethical obligation of genetic counselors

Keeping results of client's tests confidential, away from insurance companies, and public records is an example of:

The fetal period

The time from nine weeks after conception to birth is called:


If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skin, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed in this way:

Both parents are carriers for blue eyes

Imagine that eye color is determined by only one pair of genes and that brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes. If you are blue-eyed and both of your parents are brown-eyed, you know that:

Mother's age

One of the most common correlates of chromosomal abnormalities such as Down Syndrome is:

Early skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) between newborns and parents

Currently, most developmental psychologists believe that this is not essential for bonding between children and parents.

Affordable and available prenatal care

The incidence of low birth weight infants could be reduced most dramatically by:

Prefrontal cortex

The area in the brain that plans, anticipates, and controls impulses and is the last part of the brain to mature:

Babinski reflex

The way an infant toes fan upward when her foot is stroked is called:

Move her legs as if to walk

When one-month-old Lily is held upright with her feet touching a flat surface, she should:

Standing up momentarily without holding on

The last skill (of those listed in the question) to develop is:

Cultural norms

The most likely reason that parents would choose a co-sleeping arrangement for their infant:

Object Permanence

Hugh enjoys playing with your keys. When you take them away and place them in your pocket, Hugh does not search for them. Piaget would say that Hugh does NOT understand:

Parents' talking to him frequently

By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B.F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development to his:


Bill constantly talks to his 3-month-old infant. His friend Ted tells him that it is useless to do so, because an infant cannot understand language. Which group would disagree with Ted, because Bill's behavior teaches communication?

Secondary circular reactions

A baby sticks out his tongue and another person laughs. The baby joins in the laughter and deliberately sticks out his tongue again. Piaget would call this:

Put to sleep on their backs

Research on SIDS shows that babies should be:


The sense that is the least developed at birth is:

Reasons that breastfeeding isn't as popular as it should be

The American Academy of Pediatrics cites lack of societal support, physician apathy/misinformation, and marketing by formula companies as:

Infants who cannot consume their mother's milk

Human Mild Banks in the U.S. provide breast milk for infants primarily for:

17 hours or more a day

A typical newborn sleeps:

Child-directed speech

When Becky's mother speaks to her, she uses a high-pitched voice, simple words or phrases, and lots of repetition. At four months of age, Becky delights in her mother's use of:

12 months old

On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about:

Distal parent

When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is a:

Erikson's theory on toddlers

According to this, toddlers want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies

Secure attachment

A child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver is a sign of:

Temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy

Research on temperament and personality indicates that:

A social smile

At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be:

While cognitive benefits are apparent, social benefits are questionable.

This statement best summarizes the results of a longitudinal study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development regarding the advantages and disadvantages of day care:

Sensorimotor exploration

Infant day care is of high quality if caregivers emphasize, among other things:


If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows the child has some:

Nine-months old

Baby Erica met her grandfather's big dog for the first time. She immediately cried and tried to move away from the dog. Erica is most likely at least how old?

Act nervous

A parent and toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will probably:

Insecure-avoidant attachment

Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is characteristic of:

Engage in physical play

When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to:

Imitating her vocal and facial expressions

Victor and Rosa want to enhance their synchrony with their 6 month old daughter. They can do this best by:

The Strange Situation

Measures how a child responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver:

Goodness of fit

When parents find a way to provide a smooth interactions between their child's temperament and his social, familly, and school life, they have achieved:

Toilet training

Research indicates that starting training before 18 months is often related to slower completion


Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, "Naughty table!" This is an example of:

Neurological maturation

One underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is:

Theory of mind

A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called:

Prefrontal cortex

The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:


This guy belived that language advances thinking through private speech and social mediation

Qualities of a good preschool

Teachers who are responsive to children's needs and low teacher-child ratios are:

Has not mastered the concept of conservation

Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty that he flattens to a thin "pancake" as his 6 year old son, John, watches. When Daryl asks John if there is now more Silly Putty, John replies, "Yes." Piaget would say that John:


"He hitted me with a stick" is an example of:

Growth of the corpus callosum

Kayla is 4 and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This development may be attributed to:


Miriam helps her son Ben make cookies. She measures out all of the ingredients and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud while simplifying it as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon. This is an example of:


The most common causes of death for children worldwide are:

Irreversible thinking

Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we giver 2, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy has demonstrated:


Preoperational children are easily fooled by magician's tricks - which involve getting the audience to focus on one aspect of the demonstration while he is manipulating another - because of their tendency toward:

Eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods

The best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake is to:


The most common form of child maltreatment is:

Child maltreatment

Extreme poverty, a home that contains general domestic violence, and social isolation are all risk factors for:


Janelle's usual bedtime is 8:30pm and her parents strictly enforce this rule. One evening, Janelle is watching an educational program on the Discovery Channel, which ends at 9pm. Her parents agree to let her stay up to finish watching the program as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Janelle's parents are demonstrating what sort of parenting style?

It may have negative repercussions later

Research on spanking suggests that it is quick and efficient at age 2 or 3 and that:

He will become aggressive himself

4 yr old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older:

Guilt; Shame

____ is generally considered a more mature emotion that ____ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness.

Authoritarian parenting

As a father, Mr. Wallace rates low on nurturance and communication and high on maturity demands. He exhibits:

Sex; Gender

According to the text, ____ differences are biological and ____ differences are culturally prescribed.

Identifying with their fathers

According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:


Paul is unhappy and lacks self-control. His parents most likely exhibit what parenting style?


The type of aggression that tends to be characteristic of 2-year-olds is:

Cognitive theorists

Theorists who support a focus on children's understanding as opposed to observable behavior are:


The type of parenting style that is more common as income falls:

Sociodramatic play

Sara, Molly, and Shy are playing dress-up. They are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. What type of play are the three girls engaging in?

Relational bullying

Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier.They are demonstrating:

Internalizing problems

Excessive guilt, shame, or sense of worthlessness constitutes this sort of issue:

Physical punishment

This tends to suppress behaviors in the short term:

Effective punishment

Consistency, age-appropriateness, and as soon after the infraction as possible are all qualities of:

Transitive inference

The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called:

Decreasing egocentrism

School-age children move toward more flexible logic as a result of:


Adults understand irony more easily than children do. What aspect of brain development could explain this?

Working memory

As Jose walked to school with Tony, he saw Tony's notebook in his backpack. Jose rushed back to his house to retrieve his own notebook containing his homework. Jose's sensation on seeing Tony's notebook became a perception, which then triggered Jose's:


This ability is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn:


John has moved to Spain with his family. He attends a public school. All of his school subjects are taught in Spanish. John is learning Spanish through:


Although the test you are now taking measures many things, it is supposed to be a test of:

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Todd runs around the classroom, can't seem to sit still or concentrate, and is easily excited. He may diagnosed as having:


The group most likely to be taking medication for diagnosed ADHD is comprised of:


A learning disability that is difficult to diagnose and is characterized by unusual difficulty with reading.


In early childhood, autistic children have the most difficulty with:

Genetic vulnerability coupled with other factors

Most likely, autism is caused by:

Obesity in children

TV watching, lower SES, and an inactive lifestyle are all factors of:

Emphasize increased activity

Treatments for obesity in children should:

The principle of reversibility

"Addition can be used to undo subtraction" is a statement that best demonstrates:

individual context; social context

Piaget would provide us with the _____ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the ______.

Cross-sequential research

Allows researchers to disentangle differences due to chronological age from differences related to historical period:


Using the word "more" to mean, "I want another cookie" is a:


This is one of the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal study:


Symptoms of maltreatment include:

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