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18 terms

Chapter 8 Section 2

The Lower Federal Courts & Federal Judges
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District courts
-Federal courts in which trials are held and lawsuits are begun
District courts
-94 district courts, at least one in every state
District courts
-the only federal courts where witnesses testify and juries hear cases and reach verdicts
Original jurisdiction
The authority to hear cases for the first time
Appeals courts
-Review decisions made in lower district courts
-12 US courts of appeal
-do not hold trials
Appellate jurisdiction
The authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court
3 ways to appeal
1. upholding the original decision
2. reversing that decision
3. remanding the case
remanding
Sending the case back to the lower court to be tried again
opinion
Offers a detailed explanation of the legal thinking behind the court's decision
precedent
Gives guidance to other judges by offering a model upon which to base their own decisions on similar cases.
Federal Judges
-Interpret the law and protect the rights the Constitution guarantees
Federal Judges
-650 with at least 2 in every state's district court and 6 to 28 in appeals court; Supreme Court has 9 justices
Tenure
Once appointed by the President, federal judges may have their job for life and only moved through impeachment
Magistrates
-Officials that take care of a judge's routine work: issue court orders, hear preliminary evidence to determine if a case should go to trial, determine whether arrested people should be held in jail or released on bail, hear minor cases
U.S. Attorneys
-Government lawyers who prosecute people accused of breaking federal laws; look into complaints of crime, prepare formal charges, and present evidence in court
U.S. Attorneys
-duty to represent the United States in civil cases in which the government is involved
U.S. Attorneys
-appointed to 4 year terms by the President
U.S. Marshals
Make arrests, collect fines, and take convicted person to prison; protect jurors, keep order in federal courts, and serve legal papers(subpoenas)