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glycocalyx/extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)
general term used to describe substances that surround bacterial cells - around cell wall;
long outermost region of flagellum which is constant in diameter and contains the globular protein flagellin;
not covered by membrane or sheath
anchors the flagellum to the cell wall and the plasma membrane;
-composed of central rod inserted into a series of rings
outer pair of rings in cell wall, inner pair of rings in plasma membrane
arrangement of basal body rings in gram - bacteria
bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell beneath the outer sheath and spiral around the cell;
prevent rupture of bacterial cell;
maintain shape of bacterium;
point of anchorage for flagella;
produce symptoms of disease - some species
fx of cell wall
consists of an alcohol (glycerlol) and phosphate; contained by gram + bact. ;
-have negative charge do to phosphate
regulate cation mvmnt in and out of cell;
pretent extensimve wall breakdown and cell lysis;
provide antigenic specificity
fx of teichoic acids
proteins produced by some bacteria to kill closely related species
-attach to outer membrane proteins on specific channel proteins
have no cell walls- do have unique plasma membranes which contain sterols to protect cell from osmotic lysis - usually found in eukaryotes
catalyzes the hydrolysis of bonds between the NAG and NAM sugars of the peptidoglycan layers-destroying cell wall
like active transport but substance is chemically altered during transports;
-only in prokaryotes
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