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Psychology Chapter 9

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Can see objects about one foot away
A newborn
Can see the object and distinguish its color.
Baby Suzanna is two months old. Her mom places a red block one foot in front of her. Suzanna most likely
Four
At one year, a baby's visual sensitivity is _____ times greater than it was at birth.
1. Discriminate between a picture of a flower and a real flower.
2. See his mother's face when she is holding him
3. Discriminate between a blue rattle and a pink rattle
Five month old Derek is now able to
Expand rapidly after birth
Visual abilities in infants
Attachment
Building on pioneering work with nonhumans such as Lorenz's and Harlow's, developmental psychologists have suggested that human _____ grows through responsiveness of infants' caregivers to the signals that babies provide, such as, crying, smiling, reaching, and clinging.
Securely Attached
Tina, a 1-year-old infant, employs her mother as a kind of home base, exploring independently but returning to her occasionally. When her mother leaves, she exhibits distress, and she goes to her mother when she returns. Tina is
Autocratic
Which of the following is not one of Diana Baumrind's four main categories describing different parenting styles?
Sensitive, nurturing caregivers
In Erikson's developmental stage, trust vs. mistrust, a child's basic needs are met by
Identity vs. Role confusion
Which of the following stages applies to the teenage years (ages 12-20)?
Integrity vs. Despair
Erikson said that individuals look back on their lives and this retrospective glance can be either positive or negative. This stage is known as
Independence
As opposed to forming trust and attachment in infancy, children need ____ to grow emotionally in early childhood (18mos-3years)
Increasing competency in all areas (e.g., social interactions or academic skills)
Erikson suggests that passage through each of the psychosexual stages necessitates resolution of a crisis or conflict. Although each crisis is never resolved entirely—life becomes increasingly complicated as we grow older—it needs to be resolved sufficiently to equip us to deal with demands made during the following stage of development. The fourth stage, the industry-versus-inferiority stage (ages 6 to 12), is characterized by:
Develops in stages
Piaget believe that a child's ability to think
Egocentrism
Three-year-old Leo and his mother are shopping for his father's birthday gift. When Leo is asked what he thinks his father would like, Leo responds, "A choo-choo train!" Leo is demonstrating which of Piaget's concepts?
Object permanence
When Sadie's favorite toy doll is covered up with a blanket, Sadie begins to cry, because she thinks it has disappeared. Sadie lacks __________
Conservation
A child masters ________ when she understands that an object retains its quantity even if its appearance changes.
Preoperational
The __________ stage of development is marked by egocentric thought and a lack of conservation.
Object permanence
Tamara was playing "roll the ball" with her father, who rolled the ball past Tamara and it went into the next room. Immediately Tamara went searching for it. This indicates that she understands:
The secretion of various hormones
The physical changes that occur at the start of adolescence are triggered by ________________, and it affects virtually every aspect of the adolescent's life.
Being given more responsibility than their maturity level can handle
Late physical maturation may produce certain psychological difficulties for both boys and girls. Which is not one of these?
25
Scientists have found the region of the brain that inhibits risky behavior isn't fully formed until
resisting the distractions that might interfere with good driving.
A 16 year old inherently is going to have more difficulty
take greater risks when their friends are watching, but they take the same number of risks as adults when they are by themselves.
According to the research, young people consistently
requiring teens to drive SUVs for extra protection in accident.
Legislatures around the country are thinking of doing all of the following to assist teen drivers EXCEPT:
people pass through a fixed series of stages in moral reasoning, but many never reach the final stage of moral development.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development states that
Preconventional
When Billy is asked why he should not lie to his parents, he responds, "Because you will get in big trouble if you are caught lying!" Billy's response reflects the _________ stage of moral development.
Conventional
Ken believes that smoking marijuana is okay because most people find it a perfectly reasonable pastime. Ken's moral reasoning is best categorized as
Postconventional
Camilla feels that it is all right to steal a loaf of bread if it is to save a starving person's life and human life transcends the law. Camilla is most likely in the _________ stage of moral development.
Conventional
In the ________ stage of moral development, people judge the morality of an action in terms of whether it is acceptable to society or not.
Six
How many identifiable developmental constructive stages did Kohlberg claim that moral reasoning had?
pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional
Kohlberg classified moral responses into three levels:
obedience and punishment orientation
Jenny does her homework because she is afraid that if she doesn't, her parents will get angry with her and she will get in trouble. According to Kohlberg, Jenny's actions exemplify what stage of moral reasoning?
where people have strong moral reactions, but have no logical reasoning to explain their feelings
What is "moral dumbfounding"?
Gilligan
Which theorist proposed that Kohlberg's theory has a strong male bias, and thus does not adequately address the ways in which women make moral decisions?
1. he primarily used male participants
2. it pertains to moral judgments not moral behavior.
3. it applies primarily to Western society and its moral code.
Kohlberg's theory has had substantial influence on our understanding of moral development but the research support is mixed. One difficulty with the theory is that:
Stagnation
Jim is unable to contribute to his family, community, work, and society, and unwilling to assist in the development of the younger generation. Erikson would say that Jim is experiencing:
Girls; boys
__________ are more likely to attempt suicide; __________ are more likely to succeed in killing themselves.
Caucasian
Of the following ethnicities—Caucasian, African American, Asian—adolescents of which group are most likely to commit suicide?
the suicide rates of adolescents have dramatically increased.
In the past twenty years,
Perfectionism
The personality factor associated with increased suicide susceptibility in adolescents is
1. drug and alcohol problems
2. feelings of depression
3. school and family problems
Which of the following factors is associated with increased risk for suicide in adolescents?
1. depression
2. being a perfectionist
3. being prone to extreme anxiety when facing any social or academic challenges
Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that put adolescents at risk of suicide?
Entering the world of music
Jessica has finally reached adulthood and she is ready to leave her childhood home. Her entry into early adulthood will probably be marked by:
Reversibility
Janelle and Kendra were playing with two balls of clay. Kendra was molding a cake, and Janelle was making a bowl. Janelle then suggested that they get new balls of clay so they could make something different. Kendra informed her that no new clay was necessary, because the clay could be remolded to make different objects. Kendra is teaching the principle of __________ to Janelle.
Middle-aged
If Mike is struggling to achieve generativity rather than stagnation, Mike is probably
Permissive
Jack, a middle-schooler, is somewhat immature; he is "clingy" and sometimes lacks self-control. It is possible that his parents were too
A general sense of mistrust
Bonnie is 3 months old, and her parents attend only inconsistently to her needs. Sometimes they are very attentive, feeding her promptly when she cries and comforting her when she seems upset. Other times, Bonnie cries for a long time before her parents attend to her. Based on Erikson's theory, it is likely that Bonnie will develop
Egocentric thought
Megan said " It stopped raining because I wanted to go outside and play." This is an example of
Properational
Matt said " It stopped raining because I wanted to go outside and play." This indicates that Matt is in the __________ stage of cognitive development.
Scaffolding
Vygotsky's cognitive theory promotes better learning with the assistance of
Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development.
Twelve-year-old Nathaniel was having trouble solving the word problems in his math homework. However, when his dad helped him by reading the problems aloud and emphasizing the important information, Nathaniel could solve all the problems correctly. This interaction illustrates
Intimacy
Yolanda is 24. Assume that she successfully completes the identity crisis associated with her current Eriksonian stage. Which of the following is her correct developmental outcome?
Generativity
Zachary is 44. Assume that he successfully completes the identity crisis associated with his current Eriksonian stage. Which of the following is his correct developmental outcome?
Ego integrity
Andrew is 73. Assume that he successfully completes the identity crisis associated with his current Eriksonian stage. Which of the following is his correct developmental outcome?
Dr. Agnew takes a "nurture" position; Dr. Blaine, a "nature" position.
Dr. Agnew remarks that cross-culturally, rites of passage may be more common for young males than for young females, because males have higher status than do females in most cultures. Dr. Blaine counters by suggesting that rites of passage may be more common for young males than for young females, because unlike females, males do not experience the onset of menstruation, a well-defined event marking the end of childhood. How might you characterize the views of the two professors on the nature vs. nurture issue?
Stagnation
Denise is in her mid-40s; she has never married and is childless. Her job is routine, and she feels as if she hasn't really done much to contribute to society's future. In Erikson's terms, Denise is experiencing
Yes. Children do acquire some basic reasoning skills during the concrete operational period.
Some Western legal systems denote either 7 or 8 as the age at which a child attains reason. Is such a designation defensible from a Piagetian standpoint?
Children in the concrete operational stage cannot reason with hypothetical entities such as variables.
In one elementary school curriculum, mathematical variables first appear in the sixth grade. Why are they not introduced in the fourth or fifth grade?
Metacognitive ability
Two children are participating in memory research: Heather, a preschooler, and Illeana, a sixth-grader. When the children fail a recall task, the researcher asks each child what she might do to succeed at the task the next time. Heather suggests that she would simply try again; Illeana proposes that she might try to write the items down. The difference in the girls' responses most clearly illustrates an increase in _________ during childhood.