Civic and Economics Legal and Law

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civil law
the body of laws established by a state or nation for its own regulation
criminal law
the body of law dealing with crimes and their punishment
jurisprudence
The study of law
stare decisis
Let the decision stand; decisions are based on precedents from previous cases
plaintiff
one who brings a court action against another
defendant
a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law
injunction
a formal command or admonition
arraignment
a hearing in which a suspect is charged and pleads guilty or not guilty
indictment
an accusation of wrongdoing
acquittal
a judgment of not guilty
writ of certiorari
Children were granted some of the rights in criminal cases protected by the Bill of Rights., Order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send up the records of a case for review
petit jury
a jury of 6 to 12 persons who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action
grand jury
includes 16 to 23 people, hears charges against a person suspected of having committed a crime.
hung jury
a jury that is unable to agree on a verdict (the result is a mistrial)
tort
Wrongful acts that do not involve contracts
Attorney General
a procedure used in the senate to limit debate on a bill, the position of the head of the Justice Department and the chief law enforcement officer of the United States
District Attorney
those holding office longer getting better committee appointments in a legislature, an official prosecutor for a judicial district
Writ of habeas corpus
the authority to hear cases for the first time, a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
Bills of attainder
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts, Prohibits a person being found guilty of a crime w/o a trial
Ex post facto laws
the sharing of power between federal and state governments, A law which punishes people for a crime that was not a crime when it was committed. Congress cannot pass these laws.