APWH Unit 3 Vocab
Terms in this set (82)
Prospered under large and powerful states: Muslim, Byzantine, and Tang. Luxury products as it was more expensive. Knowledge and technology and Buddhism and disease
Fall of Roman Empire
In 476 C.E. Germanic leader Odoacer became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome, end of its imperial empire and unity
Nomadic Tribes that invaded Western Europe. Huns, Visigoths, and Franks. Invasion led to the fall of Rome. Often created their own civilizations drawing heavily from their conquered people.
Early Byzantine Empire
Continuation of the Roman Empire, began when Roman emperor Constantine established a new capital, Constantinople, in Byzantium, dividing the Roman Empire into the East and West. Persisted 100 years after the fall of the Western part.
Legacy of Classical Greece
Reflected in the Renaissance, with a revival of the art and literature and philosophy of ancient Greece. Using it in accordance with Roman Catholicism.
Fall of Byzantine Empire
Fall of Constantinople, faced internal issues the Turkic Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453.
Byzantium and Russia
Russia- developed a Christian community Kievan Rus. Rus was a Christian Community brought by the Byzantine Empire and borrowed a lot of administrative ideas and culture from Byzantium. Became the 3rd Rome a reminder of Byzantine legacy
A codification of revised laws for Roman political and economic life; based on the Roman Twelve Tablets; controlled political and religious power/ life in his empire
Byzantine Economy and Society
Centralized political authority, large personal freedom for its citizens. Thriving economy due to trade. Larger degree of social mobility, very vast peoples
Spread of Epidemic Diseases
Due to the Mongol revival of trade routes, the plague spread rapidly and widely in the 12th and 13th centuries, destroying 1/3 of Eurasian population.
The Hadith is the written record of his transformational spiritual experiences and serves as a guide for interpretation of the Quran and for social and legal customs, also lays out the 5 pillars and other central tenets; the last prophet
Expansion of Islam
Century after Muhammad;s death: rapid expansion, conquered Byzantine, Palestine, North Africa, Sassanid dynasty, and Persia. Hindu Indian, Iberian Peninsula, required jizya tax
capital in Baghdad, growth as a result of of military forces led by caliphs, very vast empire and very diverse. Long distance Trade with China, India, and Africa
Trade within Eastern Hemisphere
Revival of Silk Roads by Muslims. travel on Camel back, with use of compass, new sail, and astrolabe
The Quran and Women
Women as spiritual equals to men, not property of men, however emphasizes male dominance and specific guidelines for women in society (veils in public and men were allowed to have multiple wives)
Influences on the dar al-Islam
Arabic term referring to the :house of Islam" and the lands under Islamic Rule. Influences from Persia (language, poetry and politics), India (mathematics), and Greece (philosophy, science, medicine)
Islam in Northern India
Islam spread through established connections between Arabs and Persians, decline of Buddhism and Hinduism
emerges after 300 years of disorder, emphasis on Public Works incuding the GRAND CANAL end in 618
Unusually prosperous and peaceful, roads and routes, ;and for the lower class and peasants, extensive bureaucracy, civil service examination systems
Rise of Neo-Confucianism, revival of a Confucian, Buddhist, Taoism mix. Examination system, huge population boom, and many technological innovations. Rough time for women
Group of Germanic Tribes and allies with the Roman leader was Clovis , became the most powerful and dynamic of new states in Western Europe, converted to Christianity, unification of western Europe defeated Muslims
High point for the Franks was under the rule of Charlemagne, legitimacy from the Roman Catholic Church, increased control of central government.
Large Estate consisting of fields and meadows, forests, domestic animals, lakes, rivers,and the serfs who work there. Ended by Black Death
Establishment of Nation States in Western Europe
New strong nations with centralized authority emerged after the Feudal Period in Italy, Spain, France, and England. Components of state building: capital (taxes) and a large army, this began in italy then in England and then Spain
Hanseatic League (Hansa)
A trade network that developed in the Baltic and North Sea that encompassed Poland, N. Germany, and Scandinavia, all linked to the Mediterranean. Commercial partner ships began to form which increased trade volume and made social mobility possible as it impacted the class structure in N. Europe
Influence of Chriistianity in Europe
Pope as the the single most important figure, giving the Church a sense of direction. Papal supremacy and increased the role and importance of the Church in people's lives.
Large imperial states were connected by extensive trading networks and transactions between states went smoothly because political and diplomatic ties remained strong. Shared a common enemy: the Muslims The pope at the time sent missionaries to try to convert Muslims to Christianity but failed, caused the renewal of the Silk Road, reviving trade between East Asia and Europe = Pax Mongolia
Primary state of West Africa, became increasing important because of increased trans-Saharan trade and was able to control it, Islam spread to Ghana across trade routes
Mali and Mansa Musa
Controlled and taxed all trade through the West Africa, capital of Niani, Islam in Timbuktu, had religious schools with Arabian teachers
Traditional African Religious Beliefs
No unified religious beliefs . Mono and poly theistic, Worship of deceased ancestors. Lesser gods and spirits associated with sun, wind, rain, tress, rivers =ANIMiSM.
Once regional states emerged to protect Europe, Vikings looked to colonize elsewhere, such as in Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland, Canada, Scandinavia all occupied by various Vikings
Technological Development of Tang and Song dynasties
Metallurgy, printing and movable type, advancements in mathematics, medicine, and agriculture and art and literature. A wide variety of crops and plants. internal waterways and irrigation.
Migrated to Mexico, settle Tual during the 8th century, variety of agriculture, and army maintained a tightly knit empire. Destroyed in 1175 due to nomadic tribes and divisions between various ethnic groups
Development in Oceania
No contact with advanced societies until almost 1800s. Created trade and exchange networks with Paleolithic neighbors, had herds as well
Led the Chinese voyages in the Indian Ocean basin to establish Chinese power and control adn enroll them into the Chiense tribute system.
A delicate yet durable clay ceramic. Mastered production during the Tang dynasty and became a luxury product in high demand
Song dynasty harsh rules and intolerance of foreigners after foreign Tang rule. Revival of various strands of Confucian Philosophy and political culture that began in the middle of the ninth century and reached a new levels of intellectual and social creativity for the song dynasty.
A unified Japanese state emerging from dozens of small clan based chiefdoms. Began to adopt Chinese Chinese court style, officials rankings, taxation, and law codes
Chinese aspects in art, architecture, education, medicine, and religion. Selective borrowing from China. No centralized state or bureaucracy. Provincial armies= Samurai
Social system in Medieval Europe. Nobles owned land, vassals were the tenets and the peasants worked and lived on the farm paying tribute to the nobles and vassals, in exchange for military protection.
Feudalism in Europe and Japan
Roman serfdom, hereditary class organization. Constant warfare made warriors an important class (knights and samurai). Japanese feudalism stressed morality and filial piety, an obligation of warriors to protect their region and its people. In Europe, it was based on imperial laws and customs, a reciprocity between lord and his vassals.
Holy Roman Empire
loose federation of mostly German states headed by an emperor. 962-1806. Began when Pope crowned Charlemagne as Emperor in 800, succeeded by Otto 1
The concentration of power in the hands of a few was always a great disruptive force in the feudal system. The rise of powerful monarchs in France, Spain, and England broke down its organization.
Includes the warrior aristocracy bound by vassalage, as well as the peasantry bound by manorialism and the estates of the Church. Embraces society from top to bottom and occupied a distinct position to some extent outside the classical feudal hierarchy
*Education and Religion in the European Middle Ages
Islam and Christianity as the two most dominant. Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, Shia and Sunni Islam.
aka Temujin, supreme leader of the unified Great Mongol Nation, social outcast in his tribe, and was able to rise to power over tribal policies, reputation for being generous to friends, and ruthless to enemies.
European traveler who traveled on the Silk Roads all the way to Asia (China and Mongolia) Amaze and inspire a dark ages Western Europe
First major attack in 1209, empire contained China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, Islamic Middle East, Easter Europe. Did not conquer Western Europe as their leader died, Japan because of typhoons, Southeast Asia because too much jungle. Effective military through discipline and loyalty, incorporation of conquered peoples. Didn't conquer Western Europe
Decline of the Mongols
Plague: population contracted, cities declined, and the volume of trade diminished all across the Mongol world. By 1350 the empire was in disarray and within a century the Mongols have lost control of China, Persia, and Russia
Most impressive and enduring of new Islamic states. Encompassed the Anatolian peninsula and pushed deep into south eastern Europe, middle east, coastal north Africa, the black sea, acquiring a substantial Christian population. Long duration and incorporation of a diverse peoples, economic and cultural sophistication.
Trip originally for the Hajj, Islamic traveler in 14 c. Visited most of the Islamic World and many non Muslim land. Went to India, Persia, Ghana. From Morocco
East African Cultures
Kush, Axum, Ghana, Mali, Songhai. Very Islam due to trade. Mansa Musa made a pilgrimage to Mecca, very extravagant, very long, very big deal. Timbuktu as a cultural center of the Songhai Empire. Importance of oral literature and tradition, pottery and bronze sculptures,
Launched by Pope Urban II in 1095, multiple violent crusades against Muslims to regain rightful territory. Motivation for crusaders was wealth and promise of heaven
Results of the Crusades
Reinforced the East- West divide. Demise of the very crucial city of Constantinople, cultural diffusion,
Nahuatl people that established empire in modern day Mexico. With Tenochtitlan as its capital and gardens on artificial gardens
Human sacrifice: because the Gods had shed their blood ages ago in creating humankind, it was proper for people to offer their own blood to nourish the gods in the present.
Quechuan people living in Cuzco. Developed and empire in about 1100 that conquered and integrated almost everyone along the Andes. Lasted until the Spanish Conquistadors.
Development of Pacific Islands
(Easter Island, New Zealand, Tahiti, Marquesas Islands, Hawaiian Islands)
Foreign colonization and occupation from European Countries; limited contact with other societies; still cultural diffusion (ie. sweet potatoes)
People in the mystical branch of Islam, flexible and tolerant
Adoption of foreign goods
ex. Muslim travelers introducing new food and commercial crops to sub-Sahara Africa
Crusaders bringing back sugarcane
Epidemic in the middle ages killing nearly half of Europe and significantly affecting China and the Middle East but had less effect in Africa. Reason for the decline in the Silk Road.
Emperor Hongwu's (founder) goal= to remove all signs of Mongol rule; centralized power and established direct rule by the emperor; reestablished the civil service examination; society based on strict following of Ming government rules; power of the centralized government was increased by eunuchs (sterile men who could not produce a family to challenge the dynasty) and mandarins (emissaries sent out to enforce government policies)
Parallel to the revival of Confucianism. Reclaiming of greco-Roman tradition beginning in Italy 1300-1500. Focused on art, literature, individualism. created a more capitalistic economy
Explorer who sailed to the Americas from Spain and brought back information ideas from the new land
Sand Roads: transportation across the Sahara to kingdoms such as Mali, Songhay, and Ghana; camel caravans; spread religions such as Islam
Traded gold, slaves, ivory, for clothes, horses, salts, and other items manufactured in the West
Trade in the Indian Ocean
Sea Roads: cheaper, larger ships increase quantity; trade was conducted seasonally depending on the winds (the direction of the wind normally corresponded with the season
Ports: Cambay, Calicut, Quilon
*Five Pillars of Islam
5 Beliefs that all Muslims must carry out
1) Shahada: One God, Allah
2) Salat: Daily prayer 5x
3) Zakat: Almsgiving
4) Sawm: Fasting during Ramadan
5) Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca
Ming Dynasty Naval Expeditions
Began as a way to gain knowledge of other countries and cultures. Ended because many saw it as a waste of resources because China was already the superior middle kingdom and needed nothing from other nations.
Sailing vessels with multiple masts and lateen sails,
Muslim attitude toward Jews
in the beginning, treated them as "people of the book" (a branch of Islam), only required them to pay the jizya in order to practice; while he was in Medina some Jews joined their enemies and fought against them which caused Muhammad to separate Islam from Christianity and Judaism and change their worshipping direction to Mecca instead of Jerusalem.
Civil and religious leader of muslim state. Representative of Allah on earth
The way of the Samurai warriors, their distinctive set of values for combat
Growth of civilizations such as as Ghana and Mali
How and why did a European development help the growth of these civilizations. Eastern African Coast connections with India and South east Asia. Connected with Mediterranean through the Red Sea. Trade with Muslims of exotic African products, the revenue generated from this trade resulted in the growth of kingdoms and cities, making them cultural and political centers. Tons of gold in the West spurred the widespread appearance and conversion to Islam.
Geography of American Empires
Aztecs: Central Southern Mexico
Maya: Guatemala and Belize (the part that sticks up towards the USA)
Inca: West coast of South America, Peru and Chile
Eurasian exports and commodities
West Africa: salt and gold
China: porcelain and silk
SE Asia: rice
Women in feudal societies
Responsibilities included: domestic chores, given credit for making baby vassals
Powerful military caste in feudal Japan, Samurai warriors
Formation of new languages
Due to trade Swahili formed
Eurasian Empire Geographies
Ottoman, Byzantine, Safavid, Mongol, Mali, Ghana
End of Manorialism
Bubonic plague cause widespread death worker shortage. Peasants noticed just how important they were and demanded better wages or better conditions. Sparked technological innovation and created more working opportunities for women for a time
Mayan Political Structure
Never single empire. individual states linked through trade and alliances and tribute obligations
The labors that were required from the Incan people when they conquered people