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DNA, RNA, AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

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virulent
extremely poisonous or injurious
transformation
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
bacteriophage
a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
nucleotide
a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside
deoxyribose
a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
nitrogenous base
an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
purine
a colorless crystalline nitrogen-containing organic base
pyrimidine
a heterocyclic organic compound with a penetrating odor
base-pairing rules
the rules stating that cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA
complementary base pair
the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine
base sequence
the order of nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA
dna replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
helicase
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
dna polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
semi-conservative replication
in each new DNA double helix, one strand is from the original molecule, and one strand is new
mutation
a change or alteration in form or qualities
ribonucleic acid
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
the act of uniform movement
protein synthesis
the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA
ribose
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
messenger RNA
the template for protein synthesis
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according
rna polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
promoter
someone who is an active supporter and advocate
termination signal
a specific sequence of nucleotides that marks the end of a gene
genetic code
the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
codon
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
genome
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism