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env science chapter 6
Terms in this set (132)
large regions characterized by type of climate and certain types of plants and animal communities
each biome is made up of many different?
what is the biosphere divided into? what are biomes divided into?
what are biomes described by and why?
their vegetation because plants that grow in an area determine the other organisms that can live there
what do plants have that allow them to survive in a specific biome?
characteristics, specialized structures, or adaptations
what are the major biomes?
several types of aquatic environments
the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
what is the main factor in determining which plants can grow in a certain area, which in turn defines the biome
what are the two most important factors that determine a region's climate?
temperature and precipitation
how is the climate of the biome determined?
by average temperature and precipitation
what does precipitation limit?
the organisms that can be found in a biome because all organisms need water and the bigger the animal =, the more water it needs
what do biomes that do not recieve enough rain fall to support large trees support?
communities dominated by small trees, shrubs, and grasses
what is the vegetation like in biomes where rainfall is not frequent?
mostly cactuses and desert shrubs
how do temperature and precipitation relate to vegetation?
the higher the temperature and precipitation, the taller and denser the vegetation
the distance north or south from the equator, and is expressed in degrees
the height of an object above a reference point, such as sea level or the Earth's surface
what is the relationship between climate and latitude and altitude?
climate gets colder as latitude and altitude increase
where do trees of tropical rainforests usually grow?
closer to the equator
where do mosses and lichen of the tundra usually grow?
closer to the poles
what biomes does the temperate region include?
temperate forests and grasslands (usually have moderate temperatures and fertile soil that is ideal for agriculture)
what are the most diverse and widespread biomes in the world?
what are the three main forest biomes in the world?
tropical, temperate, and coniferous
forests or jungles near the equator
tropical rain forests
which biome has the greatest known diversity of organisms on earth?
tropical rain forests
which biome helps regulate world climate and which cycles are they vital to?
tropial rain forests
nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon cycles
where is most of the nutrients in tropical rain forests?
because nutrients from dead organic matter are removed so efficiently what happens to the runoff from rain forests?
it becomes as pure as distilled water
what happens to most tropical soils that are cleared of plants for agriculture?
they lack nutrients and cannot support crops for more than a few years
what are the four main layers of the rain forest?
emergent, upper canopy, lower canopy, understory
what is the emergent layer of the rain forest?
the top foliage layer in a forest where the trees extend above surrounding trees
how do trees in the emergent layer grow and emerge? how big are they?
-into direct sunlight
-60-70m tall and 5m around
what animals live in the emergent layer?
eagles, bats, monkeys, and snakes
what is considered to be the primary level of the rain forest?
how tall are the trees in the canopy? how much sunlight do they absorb?
plants that use other plants for support but not for nourishment, and are located in high trees in the canopy
where do most animals live in the rain forest? why?
the canopy because they depend on the abundant flowers and fruits that grow there
the foliage layer of the rain forest that is beneath and shaded by the canopy of a forest
what plants grow in the foliage layer and why?
trees and shrubs adapted to shade because there is very little sunlight
how tall are most plants in the understory?
what captures the small amount of light that penetrates the understory?
herbs with large flat leaves that grow on the forest floor
what has led the evolution to a diverse community of animals?
the diversity of rain forest vegetation
what are most rainforest animals?
specialists that use specific resources in particular ways to avoid competition
what do insects use to avoid predators?
when does habitat destruction occur?
when land inhabited by an organism is destroyed or altered
what are temperate forests characterized by?
rain, humidity, and temperatures
where do temperate forests occur?
north america, australia, and new zealand
where are temperate deciduous forests located?
30 and 50 degrees north latitude
how much rain does the temperate decidous forest receive each year? what type of soil do they have?
the animals of temperate deciduous forests are adapted to use the forest plants for what?
food and shelter
what are two other names for taiga?
boreal and coniferous
how short can the growing season be in a taiga?
tree that has seeds that develop into cones
what helps conifers retain water in the winter?
their narrow shape
what does the conifer's shape help the tree do?
shed snow to the ground and not get weighed down
what do conifer needles do to the soil?
make it acidic preventing plants from growing on the floor
how does soil form in the taiga?
slowly because the climate and acidity slow decomposition
in climates that have less rainfall, what are forest biomes replaced by?
savannah, grassland, and chaparral biomes
what happens to the diversity of species in an area as precipitation decreases?
diversity also decreases
what are savannas close to?
plains full of grasses and scattered trees and shrubs that are found in africa, west india, north australia, and south america
what are the two types of seasons in savannahs?
wet and dry
when are most animals active in savannahs?
during the wet season
what do grass fires do during the dry season?
restore nutrients to the soil
what do plants have to help them survive during the dry season in savannahs?
horizontal root systems
what do horizontal root systems allow plants to do after a fire?
what type of leaves do plants in the savannahs have? why?
vertical leaves to help conserve water
why do plants in savannahs have thorns?
to protect themselves form herbivores
what types of animals live in the savannahs?
when do animals give birth in the savannah?
during the rainy season when food is abundant and the young are more likely to survive
how do some species of herbivores reduce competition for food?
by eating vegetation at different heights than other species do
communities or biomes that are dominated by grasses, have few trees and rainfall that is intermediate between that of a forest and a desert
which biome has the most fertile soil of any others?
where are temperate grasslands located?
on the interiors of continents where too little rain falls for trees to grow and include the prairies of north america
what play a crucial role in maintaining grasslands in the west?
why do the root systems of prairie grasses form dense layers?
so they can survive drought and fire allowing plants to come back from year to year
why do few trees survive in the grasslands?
because of the lack of rainfall, fire, and constant winds
what has changed the grasslands?
farming and overgrazing
type of temperate woodland biome with vegetation that includes broad leafed evergreen shrubs and is located in areas with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters
where are chaparrals located?
middle latitudes about 30 degrees north and south of the equator- primarily in coastal areas that have mediterranean climates
what are most chaparral plants?
low lying, evergreen shrubs and small trees that tend to grow in dense patches
why are chaparral plants well adapted to fire?
so they can resprout from small bits of surviving plant tissues
what is a common adaptation of chaparral animals?
what is the greatest threat to chaparrels?
why do humans tend to develop lands of the chaparral?
because they get a lot of sun, are near the oceans, and have a mild climate year round
regions that have little or no vegetation, long periods without rain, and extreme temperatures
why are deserts usually located near mountain ranges?
because mountains can block the passage of moisture-filled clouds, limiting precipitaion
what do desert plants have that allow them to live in dry, desert conditions?
adaptations for obtaining and conserving water
plants that have thick, fleshy stems and leaves that conserve water
what happens to plants in the desert when conditions are too dry?
they die and drop their seeds that stay dormant until the next rainfall
why are most desert animals nocturnal?
so they are active at night and dusk when it is cooler
treeless plain that is located in the north of the arctic circle and that is characterized by very low winter temperatures, short, cool summers, and vegetation that consists of grasses, lichens, and perennial herbs
permanently frozen layer of soil or subsoil and can be found in the tundra regions
what covers vast areas of rock in the tundras?
mosses and lichens
what is the soil like in the tundra?
what is one of the most fragile biomes on the planet?
what has disrupted many tundra habitats?
oil exploration and extraction
the distance north or south of the equator, as measured in degrees is called what?
what is the main factor that determines what type of plants grow in a biome?
temperature and precipitation
biomes with higher temperatures and less precipitation tend to have what?
shorter and less vegetation
biomes that are located between 30 degrees north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude might be what?
tropical rain forests
what best describes the relationship between latitude, altitude, and climate?
climate becomes colder as you move up a mountain
what biome receives 200 to 450 cm of rain per year?
tropical rain forests
you are walking through a forest with the greatest species diversity. where is this forest located?
near the equator
you are walking through a forest that recieves relatively little rainfall and acidic soil. this forest is likely what?
as you walk through a forest on a chilly day, you can hear the fallen leaves crunch underfoot. this forest is most likely what?
what describes the relationship between climate and latitude?
the greater the latitude, the colder the climate
where is the temperate region of the world located?
between 30 and 60 degrees north latitude and 30 ans 60 degrees south latitude
name two biomes that are located in the temperate region
temperate forests and temperate grasslands
what causes climate to vary?
changes in latitude and altitude
how much tropical rain forest is cleared every minute?
how many people are estimated to be living in rain forests?
what percentage of the earth's surface was once covered by tropical rain forests? what percentage is covered by tropical rain forests today
a waxy coating on a desert plant's leaves prevents it from what?
what type of adaptations help all desert plants survive?
adaptations that help the plants obtain and conserve water
what is an example of a succulent?
regions that have distinctive climates and organisms
the broad band of coniferous forest located just below the arctic circke
plant with thick, fleshy stems
sleeping through the dry season
characterized by dry conditions, short summers, and thin soil
tropical and subtropical grasslands, wet summers, dry winters
includes trees and shrubs adapted to shade
the distance north of south of the equator, measured in degrees
lies beneath the topsoil of the tundra
height of an object above sea level
what do thin soil, high humidity, and high rainfall represent?
tropical rain forest
what do birds that migrate in the winter, coniferous plants, and cold temperatures represent?
the top layer in a tropical rain forest is the?
what do extreme temperatures, abundant precipitation, rich, deep soils, and a growing season of four to six months represent?
temperate deciduous forest
what is the biome with the highest species diversity?
tropical rain forest
what do hot summers and cold winters, low to moderate rainfall, few trees, and rich, fertile soil represent?
what factor influences where plants grow?
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