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a large landmass that juts out from a continent


a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter


written language developed by the Aryans


a Hindu prince or king in India


social group that a person is born into and cannot change


a member of the highest of the four Hindu varnas


(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation


the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth


in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment


Buddhist shrine that is shaped like a dome or mound


a person who makes a journey for religious reasons


Nomadic warriors from Central Asia who migrated into India around 1500 BCE. They are responsible for many aspects of current Indian culture including their language, sacred texts called the Vedas, and a system of government that later evolved into the caste system.

Siddartha Gautama

founder of Buddhism. Hindu prince. ultimately became Buddha (Buddha means "enlightened one")

Dalai Lama

chief lama and once ruler of Tibet

Chandragupta Maurya

He founded India's first empire. He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India.


The grandson of Chandragupta who also was a leader of the Mauryan Empire. He converted to Buddhism from Hinduism and tolerated other religions other then Buddhism when he was the leader. He is the most honored leader of the Mauryan Empire and controlled a very successful civilization.


poet and playwright; greatest of all Sanskrit dramatists; love stories illustrated a moral lesson

Why are monsoons so important to Indian farmers?

Because the cause soil-enriching floods

What caused the collapse of Harappan civilization?

earthquakes, floods, the Indus River changing its course, the Aryan invasion

How did the Aryan and Harappan lifestyle differ?

Before settling in India, the Aryans were nomadic warriors and herders. The Harappans were city-dwellers

How did the Aryans control the people they conquered?

They had military control and used Hinduism to create a rigid social structure (caste system)

What is the purpose of reincarnation in Hinduism?

To give hope that one will be reborn to a better life/caste if one does their duty (dharma)

Identify the Four Noble Truths.

1) Life is suffering; 2) People suffer b/c they desire worldly things; 3) The way to end suffering si to stop desiring things; 4) The only way to stop desiring things is to follow the Eightfold Path

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