COMM 203 Review - TAMU
Terms in this set (39)
What are the four categories of human communication?
How is public speaking similar to conversation?
Organizing your thoughts logically- you take listener step-by-step and organize the message
Tailoring audience to your message
Telling a story for maximum impact- carefully build up the story
Adapting to listener feedback- whenever you talk with someone, you are aware of that person's verbal, facial, and physical reactions
How can you deal with nervousness?
Nervousness is normal; most people tend to be anxious before something important in public. Dealing with it:
Acquire speaking experience- to gain confidence
Prepare, prepare, prepare- another key to confidence, proper prep can reduce stage fright up to 75%
Use the power of visualization- related to positive thinking
Know that nervousness is not visible- only a fraction of what you feel on the inside is visible to your audience on the outside
Don't expect perfection- no such thing as a perfect speech
At what stage of the speechmaking process does the speaker face ethical considerations?
Questions of ethics come into play whenever a public speaker faces an audience. Public speakers face ethical issues at every stage of the speechmaking process.
What are the guidelines for ethical speaking?
Be fully prepared for every speech
Be honest in what you say
Avoid name-calling and abusive language
Put ethical principles into practice/action
Make sure goals are ethically sound
What are the three types of plagiarism?
Global plagiarism- steal whole theme
Patchwork plagiarism- paper taken from different sources; might have 3 sources instead of one; copy a paragraph here, and a page there, and a sentence here, and a quote there, etc. and put it all together.
Incremental plagiarism- gives people the most trouble; forgetting to use quotation marks, forgetting to cite source, etc. Entire paper might be yours except for one sentence that you copied exactly.
What is the difference between listening and hearing?
Hearing is physiological process, listening is actually processing that sound and giving it meaning
What are the four types of listening?
What is the definition of a general purpose? Specific purpose? Central idea?
General purpose- broadest goal you could have for the speech. To inform/persuade.
Specific purpose- what you are hoping to accomplish; focus not on what you want to say, but what you want your audience to know. "I want them to know that the stereotypes of immigrants are incorrect." Here is what I am hoping to say.
Central idea- statement of what you expect to say. What I am going to tell them. "That the two stereotypes are incorrect and are harmful to our nation."
What is audience egocentrism?
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well-being...people are egocentric. As a speaker, this means that your listeners will hear and judge what you say on the basis of what they already know and believe. Second, they mean you must relate your message to your listeners- show how it pertains to them, explain why they should care about it as much as you do.
What are the two main types of audience analysis? What factors does each type focus on?
What factors help determine disposition toward the topic?
What are the three types of examples? The two types of testimony?
3 types of examples:
Brief- specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
Extended- story, narrative, anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
Hypothetical- describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
- What are the five main orders to choose from when organizing your main points?
Chronological- main points follow a time pattern
Spatial- main points follow a directional pattern
Causal- main points show cause-effect relationship
Problem-solution- first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
Topical- main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
At most, how many main points can you develop in a classroom speech?
The book says the maximum is 5...range is 2-5
- What are the four connectives discussed in the textbook?
Transitions- indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving to another
Internal preview- statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
Internal- statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
Signpost- very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas
What are the four objectives of a speech introduction?
Get the attention and interest of your audience
Reveal the topic of your speech
Establish your credibility and goodwill
Preview the body of the speech
- What methods are used to get the audience's attention?
Relate the topic to the audience
State the importance of your topic
Startle the audience
Arouse the curiosity of the audience
Question the audience
Begin with a quotation
Tell a story
What is credibility? Goodwill?
Credibility- the audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic; matter of being qualified to speak on a given topic- and of being perceived as qualified by your listeners
Goodwill- the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind
What are the two major functions of the conclusion?
To let the audience know you are ending the speech
To reinforce the audience's understanding of, or commitment to, the central idea
What are the differences between main points and subpoints?
Main point = main idea
Subpoints = support the main idea
What are the guidelines for preparing the preparation and speaking outlines?
State the specific purpose of your speech
Identify the central idea
Label the introduction, body and conclusion
Use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indentation
State main points and subpoints in full sentences
Label transitions, internal summaries, and internal previews
Attach a bibliography
Give your speech a title if one is desired
Follow the visual framework used in the preparation outline
Make sure the outline is legible
Keep the outline as brief as possible
Give yourself cues for delivering your speech
What are the two kinds of meanings?
Denotative- literal or dictionary meaning of a word/phrase
Connotative- meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
What are abstract and concrete words?
Abstract- words that refer to ideas or concepts
Concrete- words that refer to tangible objects
What are the four methods of delivery? When might you use each?
Reading from a manuscript- speech that is written out word-for-word and read to the audience; examples: Pope's religious proclamation, an engineer's report to a professional meeting; President's message to Congress
Reciting from memory- memorization, must memorize well if you choose this method
Impromptu speech- speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation; examples: when you are called upon to "say a few words"
State the point you are answering
State the point you wish to make
Support your point with examples/testimony
Summarize your point
Extemporaneous- carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of rules; examples: uses a brief set of notes, prepared and practiced in advance (preferred method)
Conversational quality- presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed; examples: sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been said before
What aspects of the speaker's voice and body are part of delivery?
What are the four types of informative (designed to convey knowledge and understanding) speeches?
What are the guidelines for informative speaking?
Don't overestimate what the audience knows
Relate the subject directly to the audience
Don't be too technical
Personalize your ideas
- Is persuasive speaking more or less complex and challenging than informative speaking?
It is much more complex; asks you to do a lot more, a lot easier to discuss something as a neutral observer than to actually put yourself out there and think of a position.
- What is the target audience?
No matter how carefully you plot your speech, you will seldom be able to persuade all your listeners. The audience will most likely contain some listeners who are hostile to your position or just don't care. Instead of appealing to everyone, appeal to your target audience. Target audience- portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
What specific speech orders can be used to organize a persuasive speech?
Specific purpose: to persuade my audience...
Central idea: there are three good reasons...
Main points: I, II, III
Specific purpose: To persuade my audience that...
Central idea: ___ is ideal because ___
Main points: I a b c, II a b c, III a b c
POLICY (problem-solution order)
Specific purpose: to persuade my audience that...
Central idea: Because ____, ____ should do ____ to solve it.
Main points: I a b, II a b
What three types of questions lead to persuasive speaking?
What are questions of fact? Question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
Analyzing questions of fact- situation for an informative speech is nonpartisan
What are questions of value? Question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action
What are questions of policy? Question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
What are the four methods of reasoning?
What are the logical fallacies discussed in the book?
Textbook discusses a lot, some specific ones were highlighted and that we will focus on. Know what they mean!
- What are emotional appeals? How are they generated?
Come from your personal experience, draw from examples, telling specific and vivid stories, using emotional language, talk in a way that grabs listener's attention, be sure that you are speaking with conviction, you care about the topic/story, etc. how they are generated, too. Makes listener feel something, also talked about it in terms of "pathos."
Two Dimensions of Group Communication?
Task Dimension - The group was formed to produce some output, project, or accomplish some goal
Social Dimension - The group has to be cohesive and be able to work together socially
What are the four stages of group development?
Forming - Everyone gets together
Storming - tension and conflict happen
Norming - the rules and common behaviors are established
Performing - group works together to accomplish tasks
Define ethos, pathos, and logos.
Ethos- who you are as a person, goodwill, trustworthiness, etc
Pathos- appeals to emotion
Logos- your logical reasoning argument
What is the relationship between claims, evidence, and warrant that make up a logical argument?
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