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World History- China

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Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity...Confucius saw women as lower than men and was extremely sexist toward them
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
right to rebellion
once a dynasty had lost the mandate of heaven, subjects felt they had gained this right.
Dynastic Cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Tang Taizong
(627- 649) He reconquerored the northern and western land that China had since the decline of the Han Dynasty. He started the achievements of the Tang Dynasty.
Wu Zhao
the only woman to ever declare herself empress, she was a member of the Tang Dynasty; takes over when Li Shimin dies; she used trickery to get power, cuts taxes, raises salaries of government officials, encourages trade and buddhism, takes korea as a tributary state, reforms the civil service exams, builds more school for more job opprotunities, takes critism from Li Bo and improves
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
civil service exam
Confucian exam to acquire a position in the Chinese bureaucracy
gentry class
high class who often became scholar officials
scholar officials
elite, educated members of the government (Had to take an exam to become this)
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Du Fu
a famous chinese poet who wrote "spring landscape" and his poems were base on the suffering of his own life
Genghis Kan
Unified China and used cruelty as a weapon and was feared yet respected.
Mongols
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
Khanate
one of several separate territories into which Ghenghis Khan's empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons.
Kublai Khan
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China
Yuan Dynasty
Chinese Dynasty established by Kublai Khan and the Mongols
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholar-gentry
Yongle
Reign period of Zhu Di (1360-1424), the third emperor of the Ming Empire (r. 1403-1424).Sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's borders to trade and travel (355)
Forbidden City
a walled section of Beijing that encloses the palace that was formerly the residence of the emperor of China
Zheng he
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. (pp. 355, 422)
Xia Dynasty
2100-1600 BCE, first dynasty
Shang Dynasty
1600-1050 BCE, second dynasty, one of the three dynasties that "marked the beginning of Chinese civilizations"
Zhou Dynasty
1046-256 BCE, third dynasty, "warring states" period, governed by a system similar to feudalism
Qin Dynasty
221-206 BCE, ruled harshly but also created a unitary state and centralized administration
Han Dynasty
206 BCE-220 CE, modified the foundation of imperial order, introduced civil service exam
Period of Disunity
220-589 CE, a time when the empire was fragmented
Sui Dynasty
581-618 CE, China reunified after it had been divided for 400 years...after two major defeats, this dynasty was overtaken by rebels
Tang Dynasty
618-907 CE, the imperial dynasty of China and a time of cultural evolution, fell when farmers rebelled and the Turks drove the Tang armies out of Asia and took control of the Silk Road
Song Dynasty
960-1279 CE, reunified China and was a time of great accomplishments such as economic and social changes and the monetization of the economy
Yuan Dynasty
1279 CE, founded by the Mongols and centered in its capital, Beijing.
Ming Dynasty
1368-1644 CE, made important economic and social relations
Middle Kingdom
the idea that China was the center of everything
Sui Wendy
first emperor of the Sui dynasty (which was the foundation for the two golden ages), reunited North and South. ended turmoil from the Han collapse but DIDN'T restore glory
Sui Yangdi
second emperor of Sui; completes Grand Canal; high taxes and forced labor spur hostility resulting in his assassination in 618
role of women in china
subordinate to men, property of their fathers until married (when husbands got property of their wives) and had their feet bound as a symbol of nobility
foot binding
a custom which many Chinese women engaged in, involving the binding of a young girls feet with the ultimate goal of forming the feet into small "lotus" feet
Landscape Painting
...
Poetry
people exchanged poems as we do today with letters, and poems were read as a form of entertainment
Li Bo
chinese poet who wrote fun and lighthearted poems
Du Fu
chinese poet who experienced the darker side of life and failed the civil service exam, but channeled this energy into his poems and wrote deeper pieces that many could relate to
Chinese Inventions
writing, paper, gunpowder, magnetic compass, "moveable type" used by printers
Mongols
nomads in northern Eurasia who established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. the nation eventually weakened and nobles took over.
Genghis Khan
Mongolian Emperor whose empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (1162-1227)
Khanates
the 4 divisions of the Mongol empire
Khanate of the Great Khan
the khanate that included Mongolia and Chins
Kublai Khan
Genghis Khan's grandson, named the Great Khan in 1260, founded a new dynasty (the Yuan)
Marco Polo
explorer from Venice who visited Khan in China, and stayed 17 years... he was then captured and imprisoned, and told his stories of travels in China while in jail
Yuanzhang
founded Ming Dynasty
Ming Hongwu
Yuanzhang's new name, after founding the Ming Dynasty
Yongle
...
Treasure Ship Voyages
voyages that were taken to explore, expand, trade, and show off China's wealth. they succeeded in these goals, but lost money. the voyages ended because
Admiral Zhenghe
sent by Ming emperor on an expedition to show off Chinese power and wealth with a huge fleet