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The characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people to think only about themselves is called adolescent ___________________.


The adolescent's belief that he or she is unique is called the ________ ________. An adolescent's tendency to feel that he or she is somehow immune to the consequences of dangerous or illegal behavior is expressed in the ____________ ________. Research studies have found that many adolescents do not feel _____________.

personal fable;invincibility fable; invincible

Adolescents, who believe that they are under constant scrutiny from nearly everyone, create for themselves an _____________ _____________.

imaginary audience

Piaget's term for the fourth stage of cognitive development is _______ _______thought. Adolescent thinking _________(is /is not) limited by concrete experiences.

formal operational; is not

Piaget devised a number of famous tasks to demonstrate that formal operational adolescents imagine all possible ________ of a problem's solution in order to draw the appropriate _________. Briefly describe how children reason differently about the "balance beam" problem at age 3 to 5, 7, 10 and 13,14.

determinants; conclusions
3 to 5 yr old have no understanding of how to solve the problem. By age 7, children understand balancing the weights but don't know that distance from the center is also a factor. By age 10, they understand the concepts but use trial and error, not logic. By ages 13, 14 they are able to solve the problem

The kind of thinking in which adolescents consider unproven possibilities that are logical but not necessarily are is called ___________ thought.


Adolescents become more capable of _________ reasoning - that is, they can begin with an abstract idea or ___________ and the use ________ to draw specific ________. This type of reasoning is a hallmark of formal operational thought.

deductive; premise;logic;conclusions

This kind of reasoning contracts with reasoning that progresses from specifics to reach a general conclusion, called ___________reasoning.


Most developmentalists _________ (agree/disagree) with Piaget that adolescent thought can be qualitatively different from children's thought. They disagree about whether the change in thinking is _______ (gradual/sudden)


The fact that adolescents can use ___________- ____________ reasoning does not necessarily mean that they do use it.


In addition to advances in the formal, logical, _________-__________ thinking described by Piaget, adolescents advance in their ___________ cognition. Researchers believe that the adult brain has two distinct pathways, called ________ ___________ networks.

hypothetical-deductive; intuitive; dual processing

The first mode of thinking, which begins with a prior ____,____,____, is called ___________. The second model, Piaget's formal hypothetical-deductive reasoning, is called _________ thought.

belief, experience, or assumption; intuitive (or contextualized or experientail) analytic

Although intuitive thinking generally is ________ and___________it is also often ___________(right/wrong)

quick; powerful; wrong

The belief that if time, effort, or money has already been invested in something, then more time,effort, or money should be invested is called the ___________ _________ ________.

sunk cost fallacy

In another common fallacy, decisions are made on a __________ basis despite statistical evidence to the contrary; this is called ________ ________ _______.

personal; base rate neglect

Most adolescents _________(feel/do not feel) that religious belief is important in daily life. Adolescents' religious beliefs tend to be _________and ________, not analytic. Most children and adolescents ______(do/do not) adhere to their parents' beliefs.

feel; egocentric; intuitive; do

Type of thinking
a) egocentrism
b) Hypothetical Deductive
c) Intuitive Thought
d) Analytic Thought

Possible answers follow:
a) Why do these catastrophes always happen to me and not to someone else? (personal fable)
b) I think there's a gremlin in my car and he's letting me know he's there "(thinking about possiblities that may not be real)
c)"last time this happened my car broke down. What am I going to do?" (experiential)
d)"I need to get my car to a mechanic as soon as possible." (logical thought).

An experimenter hides a ball in her hand and says, "The ball in my hand is either red or it is not red." Most pre-adolescent children say

c. they cannot tell if the statement is true or false.
Although this statement is logically verifiable, pre-adolescents who lack formal operational thought cannot prove or disprove it.

Fourteen-year-old Monica is very idealistic and often develops crushes on people she doesn't even know. This reflects her newly developed cognitive ability to

c.imagine possible words and people
Monica now has the ability to use hypothetical-deductive reasoning.

Which of the following is the best example of the sunk cost fallacy?

c. Kali continues to work on his old clunker of a car after hours of unsuccessful efforts to get it to run.
- Adriana imagines that she is destined for a life of fame and fortune is an example of a personal fable.
-Ben makes up stories about his experiences to impress his friends & Julio believes that every girl he meets is attracted to him are more indicative of pre-occupation with the imaginary audience.

Which of the following is the BEST example of the adolescents' ability to think hypothetically?

d.13 yr old Josh delights in finding logical flaws in virtually everthing his teacher and parents say.
- Hypothethical reasoning involves thinking about possiblities
-12 yr old Stanley feels that people are always watching him is an example of the imaginary audience
-14 yr old Mindy engages i many risky behaviors, reasoning that "noting bad will happen to me." is an example of the invicibliity fable.
- 15 yr old Philip feels that no one understands his problems is an example of adolescent egocentism.

Frustrated because of the dating cure few her parent have set, Melinda exclaims, "You just don't know how it feels to be in love 23" Melinda's thinking demonstrates

b. the personal fable.
-the personal fable is the adolescent's belief that his or her feeling and thought are unique

Compared with her 13 yr old bother, 17 yr old Yolanda is likely to

- be more capable of reasoning hypothetically.
- Adolescents become less critical of themselves and less eqocentric as they mature and as the prefrontal cortex matures.

Nathan's fear that his friends will redicule him because of a pimple that has appeared on his nose reflects a preoccupation with an ____ _____.

Imaginary audience.

The reasoning behind the conclusion, "If it waddles like a duck and quacks like a duck, then it must be a duck," is called ____ ____.

inductive reasoning.
This is reasoning that moves from the specific to reach a general condlusion.

Give an example of deductive reasoning:

b.Brittany loves to reason from clues to figure out "whodunit" crime mysteries.
Solving myseries is an example of deductive reasoning.

The period after primary education and before ______education is called _______education. With puberty coming _______(earlier/later) than in years past, many intermediate ______ schools have been established to educate children in grades 6,7,and 8.

tertiary; secondary;earlier;middle

During the middle school yrs, academic achievement often _________(slows down/speeds up). In addition, behavioral problems become _______(most/Less) common. Most developmentalist think that this occurs more because of the ___________ ____________ of middle schools than because of the ____ ____ of puberty.

slows down; more; organizational structure;biological stresses

The "digitial divide" that once separated _____from ______and _____from ____has been bridged. In developed nations today, the greatest divide, in terms of technology use, is ___________.

boys'girls'; rich; poor; age

Internet use and video games improve ________- __________ skills and _________. In addition, ________ _______ many speed up the adolescent's ability to move past egocentrism.

visual-spatial; vocabulary; social networking

Potential dangers of the see of computers include encouraging rapid shifts of ___, __learning instead of invisible analysis. Other dangers include sexual predators; _____, which occurs when one person spreads online insults and rumors about someone else; and Web sites devoted to self-mutiliation, or __________.

attention;reflection; visual; cyberbullying; cutting

The first yr of a new school is ________, and on going minor stresses can become overwhelming, causing ________. Signs of stress include ____, ____ ,_____behavior, and _________ school.

stressful;pathology;absenteeism;externalizing; leaving

By high school, curriculum and teaching style are often quite _______, ___________, _________ behavior, and ________________school.

analytic,abstract, hypothetical;logical

By high school, curriculum and teaching style are often quite _______, _________,________ and _________.

analytic,abstract, hypothetical;logical

34. Another feature of the high school environment is ________-_______testing, so called because the consequences of failing are so severe. Whenever this type of testing is a requisite for graduation, there is a potential unintended consequence of more ______.

high-stakes; dropouts

35. An international test designed to measure problem solving and practical cognition needed in adult life is the _____________.

PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment)

36. Thinking Critically) Adolescents are more likely to be engaged with school if the school is _____(small/larger). Also, adolescents who are active in school _______ ________ are more likely to be engaged. The same practices that foster motivation and education can also prevent ______

small; extracurricular activities; violence

37. Sumarizing her presentation on the mismatch between the needs of adolescents and the trational structure of their schools. Megan notes that

37. most high schools feaqture intensified competition & the curriculum of most high schools emphasizes formal operational thinking & the academic standards of most schools do not reflect adolescents' needs.

39. Concluding her presentation on academic achievement during adolescence, LaToya notes that the "low ebb" of learning is the

c. first year of middle school.
-Some psychologists have proposed that this occurs because students lose close connection to teachers in overly large classes.

The dangers of adolescents' increasing use of technology include

d. cyberbullying &* self-mutiliation web sites, & the potential to push them toward violent sex.

PT. 1: Many psychologists consider the distinquishing feature of adolescent thought to be the ability to think in terms of

c. possibility, not just reality.
a. Although moral reasoning becomes much deeper during adolescence, it is not limited this stage of development.
b.&d. concrete operations & logical principles: Concrete operational thought, which is logical, is the distinquishing feature of childhood thinking.

2. Piaget's last stage of congnitive development is

a. concrete operational thought
b. In Piaget's theory, this stage preceeds formal operational thought where analytical thinking works in all situations
c&d.universal ethical principles & symbolic thought are not stages in Piagets theory...

3. The sunk cost fallacy is the mistaken assumption that

a. because one has already spent time on some-thing, one should spend more

4. The adolescent who takes risks and feels immune to the laws of mortality is showing evidence of the

a. invincibility fable

5. Imaginary audiences and invincibility fables are expressions of adolescent

d. egocentrism
These thought processes are manifestations of adolescents' tendency to see themselves as being much more central and important to the social scene than they recall are...

6. The typical adolescent

c. is sensitive to criticisms self-absorbed and hype

7. When adolescents enter middle school,may

d. experience a drop in their academic performance, show increased behavioral problems, lose connections to teachers.

8.The psychologist who first described adolescent egocentrism is

b. David Elkind

9.Thinking that begins with a general premise and then draws logical conclusion from it is called

b. deductive reasoning
a. Inductive reasoning moves from specific facts to a general conclusion
C. By its very nature, intuitive thinking does not move logically either from a general conclusion to specifc facts or from specifc facts to a general conclusion.
d. Hypothetical reasoning involves thinking about possibilities rather than facts.

10. Serious reflections on important issues is a wrenching process for many adolescents because of their new found ability to reason

c. hypothetically

11.Hypothetical-deductive thinking is to contextualized thinking as

a.rational anaylisis is to intuitive thought
Contextualized thinking is both experiential and intuitive.

12. Many adolescents seem to believe that their love-making will not lead to pregnancy. This belief is an expression of the

b. invincibility fable
a. The sunk cost fallacy is the mistaken belief that , because one has invested time and effort in something, one should continue doing so.
c. Imaginary audience refers to adolescents' tendency to fantasize about how others will react ot their appearance and behavior.

13. Current high school education in the United States does not seem to meet the needs of the sizable number of students who

c. are qualified to take advance placement courses (AP)

14. One problem with many high schools is that the formal curriculum ignores the fact that adolescents thrive on

b. intellectual challenges and require social interaction

15. A research study investigating teenage religion found that

b. most adolescents identify with the same tradition as their parents.

T/F/1. The approprateness of the typical high school's high-stakes testing environment has been questioned.


2. Adolescents are generally better able than younger children at recognizing the sunk cost fallacy.


3. Adolescents' egos sometimes seem to overwhelm logic.


4. When high-stakes tests are a requisite for graduation, there is a potential consequence of more high school dropouts.


5. Adolescents often create an imaginary audience as they envision how other will react to their appearance and behavior.


6. Thinking reaches heightened self-consciousness at puberty.


7. Adolescent egocentrism is always irrational

Adolescents do judge each other

8. Inductive reasoning is a hallmall of formal operational thought.

Deductive reasoning is the hallmark of formal operational thought

9. Academic acievement often slow down during the middle school years.


10. The brain has two distinct processing networks.


PT2: 1.Adolescents who fall prey to the invincibility fable may be more likely to

a. engage in risky behaviors

2. Thinking that extrapolates from a specific experience to form a general premise is called

a. inductive reasoning
b. Deductive reasoning begins with a general premise and then draws logical conclusions from it.
c. By its very nature, intuitive thinking does not move logically either from a general conclusion to specific facts or from specfic facts to a general conclusion
d. Hypothetical reasoning involves thinking about possibilities rather than facts

3. Education during grades 7 - 12 is generally called

b. secondary education

4. When young people overestimate their significance to others, they are displaying

b. adolescent egocentrism

5. The imaginary audience refers to adolescents imagining that

b. they are always being scrutinized by others.

6. The typical high school environment

is described by all of these condtions

7. As compared with elementary schools, most middle schools exhibit all the following:

intensified competition, inappropriate academic standards, less individualized attention

8. Which of the folowing is true regarding experiential thinking?

a. it is quicker and more passionate than formal operational thinking.

9. Which of the following most accurately expresses how the typical adolescent feels about religion?

a. Most adolescents consider themselves to be religious

10. Analytic thinking is to _________thinking as emotional force is to ________thinking.

c. formal; intuitive

11. One of the hallmarks of formal operational thought is

b.deductive reasoning.

12. Analytic thinking and experiential thinking

both use the same neural pathways in the brain, and are really the same type of information process.
c. both improve during adolescence

13. Relational bullying in particular accelerates

c. with cyberbullying

14. In the United States, the greatest divide between Internet users and nonusers is now


The shame of cyberbullying is magnified by the imaginary audience

regarding cyberbullying

1. invincibility fable

b. the tendency of adolescents to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others

2. imaginary audience

l. The idea held by adolescents that others are intensely interested in them, especially in their appearance and behavior

3. high-stakes test

j. an evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure

4. hypothetical thought

f. reasoning about proposition that may or maynot reflect reality

5. deductive reasoning

m. thinking that moves from premise to conclusion

6.. inductive resoning

i. thinking that moves for specific experience to a general premise.

7. formal operational thought

g. the last stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget.

8. sunk cost fallacy

c. mistaken belief that if a person has already spent time or money on something, he or she should continue to do so.

9. dual-process model

e. the idea that there are 2 thinking networks in the brain

10. adolescent egocentrism

a. the tendency for adolescents to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.

11. base rate neglect

k. faulty reasoning that ignores the actual frequency of some behavior.

12. PISA

h. test that measures practical problem-solving skill

13. cutting

d. self-mutilation

1. adolescent egocentrism

refers to the tendency of young adolescents to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others

2. personal fable

refers to an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique

3. invincibility fable

Adolescents who experience the invincibility fable feel that they are immune to the dangers of risk behaviors.

4. imaginary audience

Adolescents often create an imaginary audience of themselves because they assume that others are as intensely interested in them as they themselves are.

5. formal operational thought

In Piaget's theory, the last stage of cognitive development, which arises from a combination of maturation and experience, is called formal operational thought. A hallmark of formal operational thinking is more systematic logic and the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract ideas.

6. hypothetical thought

Hypothetical thought involves reasoning about propositions and possibilites that may not relect reality.

7. duductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is thinking that moves from the general to the specific, or from a premist to a logical conclusion; also called top-down reasoning

8. inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoing is thinking that moves form one or more specifc experiences or facts to a general conclusion ; also called bottom-up reasoning.

9. dual-process model

the dual-process model is the idea that there are two thinking networks in the human brain, one for emotional thinking and one for the analytical thinking.

10. intuitive tought

intuitive thought is that which arised from a hunch or emotion, often trigged by past experiences and cultural assumptions.

11. analytic thought

Analytic thought is logical thinking that arises from rational analysis and the systematic evaluation of consequences and possibilities

12. sunk cost fallacy

The sunk cost fallacy is the mistaken belief that, because one has already invested money, time, or effort that connnot be recovered, one should continued doing so in an effort to reach the desired goal.

13. base rate neglect

Base rate neglect is a faulty form of emotional decision making that ignores the actual frequency or a behavior of characteristic.

14. secondary education.

Secondary education is education that follow primary education and precedes tertiary education, usually occurring from about age 12 to 18

middle school

Middle school refers to the years of school between elementary school and high school.

cyberbullying occurs when one person spreads insults or rumors about someone else by means of e-mails, text messages, or cell phone videos.


Cutting is an addictive form of self-mutilation that is most prevalent among adolescent girls and that correlates with depression and drug abuse.


high-stakes tests are exams and other forms of evaluation that are critical in determining a person's success or failure.

high-stakes tests

The PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) is an international test taken by 15 yr olds that measures practical problem-solving and cognition his daily life

Programme for international student assessment (PISA)

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