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Maria's Four Identity Statuses

diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement


identity status where the individual is overwhelmed by the task of achieving an identity and does little to accomplish the task


identity status where the individual has a status determined by adults rather than from personal exploration


identity status where the individual is examining different alternatives but has yet to find one that is satisfactory


identity status where the individual has explored alternatives and has deliberately chosen a specific identity

Adolescent Egocentrism

self absorption that is characteristic of teenagers as they search for identity.

Adolescent Egocentrism

adolescents are overly concerned with their own thoughts and feelings.

Imaginary Audience

adolescent feeling that they are actors whose performance is watched constantly by their peers

Personal Fable

teenager's tendency to believe that their experience and feelings are unique, that no one has ever felt or thought as they do.

Illusion of Invulnerability

adolescent belief that misfortune only happens to others

Ethnic Identity

feeling a part of an ethic group and learning the special customs and traditions of their group's culture and heritage.


adolescents who have achieved an ethic identity: higher or lower self esteem?

role confusion

according to Erikson, adolescents face a crisis between identity and ________


The status that would describe an adolescent who has attained an identity based almost entirely on her parents' advice and urging.


A person who has simply put off searching for an identity because it seems too confusing and too overwhelming is in the ______status

Imaginary audience

____refers to the fact that adolescents sometimes believe that their lives are a performance, with their peers watching them constantly.


True/False: Adolescents are most likely to achieve an identity when parents encourage them to explore alternative identities but do not pressure them or provide direction


true/false: In the second phase of achieving an ethnic identity, adolescents avoid exploring the personal impact of their ethnic roots.


True/False: When individual have a strong ethnic identity, their identification with mainstream culture is sometimes strong and sometimes weak, depending on specific circumstances.


when adolescents use their emerging identity as a source of ideas about careers


when individuals further limit their career possibilities by learning more about specific lines of work and starting to obtain the training required for a specific job.


when individuals enter the workforce and learn firsthand about jobs.


person who developed the Personality-Type Theory

Personality Type Theory

Theory with the following categories: realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising, artistic. Aimed at explaining the match between people and occupations.

Personality Type theory

Holland's theory that people find work fulfilling when the important features of a job or profession fit the worker's personality.

more than 15

number of hours of work per week that students devote less time to homework and are apt to cut classes, get lower grades.

15 or 20

number of hours of work per week that students are likely to experience anxiety and depression and their self-esteem often suffers


the main factors that determine whether teenagers drink include parents, peers and _____


True/False: Peers influence teenage smoking indirectly by establishing an informal school norm in which smoking is approved

family processes

The factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency include biology, cognitive processes, ________ and poverty

juvenile delinquency

The factors that contribute to _________include biology, cognitive processes, family processes and poverty


The factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency include _________, cognitive processes, family processes and poverty

cognitive processes

The factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency include biology, ____________, family processes and poverty

family processes

The factors that contribute to juvenile delinquency include biology, cognitive processes, ____________and poverty


pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability and low self-esteem.

Learned Helplessness

generalized feelings of helplessness and belief that one is always at the mercy of external events, with no ability to control one's own destiny.


disorder characterized by pervasive feelings of sadness, irritability and low self-esteem.

Norepinephrine and serotonin

neurotransmitter that helps regulate brain centres that allow people to experience pleasure

antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy

two general approaches to treating Depression


antidepressant drug designed to reduce depression by increasing levels of serotonin (re-uptake inhibitor)

Juvenile Delinquency

when adolescents commit acts that are illegal as well as destructive towards themselves or others

Status Offenses

delinquent acts that are not crimes if committed by an adult, such as truancy, sexual promiscuity and running away from home

Index Offenses

delinquent acts such as robbery, rape and arson, which are crimes regardless of the age of the perpetrator.

Adolescent-Limited Antisocial Behavior

youth who engage in relatively minor criminal acts that yet aren't consistently antisocial.

Life-Course Persistent Antisocial Behavior

antisocial behavior that emerges at an early age and continues throughout life.

teach more effective social skills

Treatment and Prevention of delinquency: _____________, effective discipline and parenting skills

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