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1. Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity rather than accepting what their parent want for them?

Psycholsocial development in adolescence is trying to figure out one's self-expression (ones own identity) vs. role confusion. Role confusion is the opposite of identity achievement -- When adolescence try to figure out who they are with no goals. They can depend on parental monitoring and the type of parenting (Authoritative is best)

2. What special difficulties are encountered by adolescents who are gay or lesbian?

Gender identity or sexual identity - identifying their own internal sexual orientation. This can be due to biological sex that lead to assumption of gender role. It could be behavior that society imposes or as adolescence strive for self- identity. Social expectations, emotion, hormones all have to do with it.

How can a person tell if an adolescent might attempt suicide?

Sometime it is not noticeable if there is not noticeable behavior changes suchas going to a quiet place, skipping school, lying, sneaking or working off their fallacy intuition or hypothetical-intuition. Too controlling of parents can cause extra stress & hormones with social interaction and trying to find the own identity might lead to suicide attempt.

4. Why are more young men in prison than young women?

Boys have a more imprompt reaction due to their hormones and development of the frontal lobe- causing an intuitive response to impress their peers, where girls tend to be more analytical.

5. Is it really harmful for adolescents to smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol?

Yes, It affects nutrition, digestion and growth(GnRH) and future respiratory issues as well as immunity.

1. The momentous changes that occur during the teen years challenge adolescents to find their own ___________________


2. According to Erikson, the challenge of adolescence is ____ ___ vs. ___ ____.

identity vs role confusion

3. The ultimate goal of adolescence is to establish a new identity that involves both rejection and acceptance of childhood values; this is called _ _.

identity achievement

4. The young person who lacks a commitment to goals or values and is apathetic about defining his or her identity is experiencing.__________ _____.

role confusion (identity diffusion)...
Has become lazy and not goal oriented and tend to get depressed.

5. The young person who prematurely accepts earlier roles and parental values without exploring alternatives or truly forging a unique identity is experiencing identity _______.

5. foreclosure.

6. A time-out period during which a young person experiments with different identities, postponing important choices, is called an identity ________. An obvious institutional example of this in North America is attending ____________.

6. moratorium; college.

7. Erikson described four aspects of identiy: _______ ______ ___ and ___________.

7. religion; gender (sex); politics; vocation

8. Today, a person's identification as either male or female is called _________ _______, which usually leads to a gender________

8. genter identity; role

9. The tendency to identify politically with others of one's group, such as those of the same religion or ethnicity, is referred to as _______ ________.

9. identity politics

10. Vocatonal identity __________ (is/is not) relevant today for two reasons:

10. is not; the number of careers now available and the fact that at age 18 a person is not yet ready to choose a lifetime career.

11. Gender identity usually begins with the person's ______ _____ and leads to assumption of a __________ ___________.

11. biological sex; gender role...

12. From childhood, Sharon thought that she wanted to follow in her mother's footsteps and be a homemaker. Now at age 40 with a home and family she admits to herself that what she really wanted to be was a Medical Researcher. Erik Erikson would probably say that Sharon __________________

b. experienced identity foreclosure at an early age
apparently, Sharon never explored alternative or truly forged a unique personal identity.

13. Jennifer has a well-defined religious identity. This means that

d. she self-identifies as a religious person, she follows her parents practice of worshiping regularly, as a muslim, she may wear a headscarf.

14. Compared with adolescents in her parents' and grandparents' generations, 12 yr old Raisel is likely to_________________

14.b. have a more difficult time forging her identity.

15. Adolescence is often characterized as a time of waning adult influence; this ___________ (is/is not ) necessarily true.

15. is not.

16. Parent-adolescent conflict peaks during ______ ______ and is particularly notable between the ______ (mother/fathers) and their ______(sons/daughters).

16. early adolescence; mothers; daughters ...

17. Parent-adolescent conflict often involves ________, which refers to repeated petty arguments about daily habits

17. bickering.
This is normal as parents wish to control and children are forging their independence.

18. By the age 18, increased ____________ maturity and reduced a___________ bring some renewed appreciation for parents

18. emotional; egocentrism.

19. There ___________(are/are not ) cultural differences in parent-adolescent relationships. Some cultures value __________above all else and avoid conflict. Thus, the very idea of adolescent rebellion may be a ________ construction in Western culture.

19. are; harmony; social

20. Four other elements of parent-teen relationships that have been heavily researched including ______, ______, ______, and ________.

20. communication; support; connectedness; control

21. In terms of family control, a powerful deterrent to drugs and risky sex is ______ _____.Too much interference, however, may contribute to adolescent _____.

21. parental monitoring; depression
Be authoritative with communication/ not authoritarian parents - demanding without communication.

22. (A view from scence). A longitudinal study of African American families in rural Georgia found that family training that encouraged youth to postpone ____ ____ ,____ ____ and ____ resulted in healthier development. This was especially true for youth who inherited the short _____ one of the _____.

22. alcohol use; marijuana use; sex; allele; gene

23. An important aspect of healthy development is supportive relationships with __________adults.

23. non-parent or unrelated...

22.. Social pressure to conform to peer activities is called _________ __________. This pressure is _________ as often as it is ______________. Destructive peer support is called ________ _________.

24. peer pressure; constructive; destructive; deviancy training.

25. Adolescents group themselves into clusters of close friends, called _______, and large groups, or _______, who share common interests. These groups provide social _______ and social ______.

25. cliques; crowds; control; support...

26. Two helpful concepts in understanding the influence of peers are ___________, meaning that peers _________one another; and _________, referring to the fact that peers encourage one another to do things that __________________.

26. selection; choose; facilitation; none of them would do alone. (Cops call this gang mentality)

27. Bill's parents insist on knowing the whereabouts and activities of their son at all times. Clearly, they are very good at ______ ______

27. parental monitoring

28. First time parent Norma and Norman are worried that during adolescence, their healthy parental influence will be undone as their children are encouraged by peers to become sexually promiscuous, drug-addicted, or delinquent. Thier wise neighbor, who is a developmental psychologist tells them that

28. a. peers are constructive as often as they are destructive.
Developmentatlist recommend authoritative, rather than authoritarian, parenting. And, parental monitoring is important for all adolescents.

Briefly outline the four-stage progression of heterosexual involvement:

The progresssion begins with groups of same-sex friends. Next, a loose, public association of a girls' group and boys' group forms. Then, a small, mixed sex group forms from the more advanced members of the crowd. Finally, more intimate couples peel off.

29. Culture _____(affects/does not afffect) the __________and _________of these stages, but the basic _______seem to be based on _______. In modern developed nations,each stage typically lasts several years.

29. affects; timing; manifestations; sequence; biology...

30 . Rates and ages of sexual activity _________(vary/do not vary) from nation to nation.

30. vary...

31.The direction of a person's erotic desires is called _________ _________. The number of early adolescents who do not identify with their biological sex seems to be ______________(increaseing /decreasing). Some of these maybe diagnosed with ________-_____________ ________.

31. sexual orientation; increasing; gender-identity disorder

32. Many parents___________________(underestimate/overestimate) their adolescents' need for sexual information. And _____________(some/almost all/ none) want other adults to provide their adolescents with up-to-date sex education. Developmentalist agree that high schools ____(should/should not ) teach sex education and that sex education also should be part of ______- ______converstaions.

32. underestimate; almost all; should; parent-child

33. Sex education ______(varies/does not vary) from nation to nation. The timing and content of the sex education in the U.S. __________(varies/ does not variy) by state and community.

33. varies; varies

34. Research shows that sex education programs generally ______(are/are not) successful in delaying the age at which adolescents become sexually active. Research on the value of absteinence-only programs indicates that they _______(do/do not) make a difference in teen sexual activity

34. are; do not

35. Padma's parents are concerned because their 14 yr old daughter has formed an early romantic relationship with a boy. You tell them

35 b. not to worry; many teenage romances do not include sexual intercourse.
Girls are more likely to say they have a boyfriend than vice versa
d. The relationship may actually be healthy for their daughter, so they shouldn't arbitrarily break it up.

36. From late childhood through adolescence, people generally feel ______________(more/less) confident, on average, each year in most areas of their lives.


37. Clinical depression ______________(increases/decreases) at puberty, especially among _________(males/ females). One explanation is that talking about and mentally replaying past exeriences, which is called _______________, is more common among ___________(males/females)

increases; females; rumination; females...

38. Thinking about committing suicide, called __________ ______, is __________(common/relatively rare) among high school students.)

suicidal ideation; common...

39. Most suicide attempts in adolescence ___________(do/do not ) result in death. A deliberate act of self-destruction that does not result in a death is called a ___________.

do not; parasuicide

40. Adolescents are _____________________(more/less) liekly to kill themselves than adults are. Although depression and parasuicide are more common among ______________(male/females), completed suicide is higher for ________________(males/females) in every nation except China.

less; females; males

41. When a town school sentimentalizes the "tragic end" of a teen suicide, the publicity can trigger _______ _______.

cluster suicides.

42. Since 1990, rates of adolescent suicide have _______(risen/fallen), especially among those with family ________ and ________.

42. fallen; income; education...

43. Psychologists influenced by the __________ perspective believe that adolescent rebellion and defiance are normal.

psychoanalytic (Freudian).

44. In terms of the frequency of arrests. __________(only a few/virtually all) adolescents break the law at least once before age 20. Briefly describe data on gender and ethnic differences in adolescent arrests.

virtually all
Adolescent males are 3 times as likely to be arrested as females, and African American youth are 3 time as likely to be arrested as Europen Americans, who are 3 times as likely to be arrested as Asian Americans. The Hispanic rate usualy falls bewee that of African and European American. However, self-reports find much smaller gender and ethnic differences.

45. Developmentalists have found that it ___(is/is not) currently possible to distinquish children who actually will become career criminals. List several of the childhood factors that correlate with delinquency.

Among the factors are short attention span, being the victim of severe child abuse, hyperactivity, inadequate emotional regulation, maternal cigarette smoking, slow language development, low intelligence, early and severe malnutrition, and autistic tendencies.

46. Experts find it useful to distinquish _______-_____offenders, whose crimInal activity stops by age 21, from _____- ________ _________ offenders, who become career criminals.

adolescent-limited; life-course-persistent...

47. Carl is a typical 16 yr old who has not special problems. It is likely that Carl has

d. engages in all of these behaviors.

48. Statistically, who of the following is most likely to commit suicide?

c. James, a 16 yr old male (16 and 17 yr olds)
Males are more likely to commit suicide, although parasuicide is more common among females. Suicide rates are higher among older adults than among adolescents.

Coming home from work. Rashid hears a radio announcement warning parents to be alert for possible cluster suicide signs in their teenage children. What might have precipitated such as announcement?

b. the highly publicized suicide of a teen from a school in town.
Cluster suicides occur when the suicide of a local teen leads other to attempt suicide

50. Drug Use and Abuse: Between 10 to 25 and age , both the ________and ___________of drug use increase. The best predictor of drug abuse as an adult is _____________________________.

incidence; prevalence; use before age 18.

51. Drug use _______(varies/does not markedly vary) from nation to nation.


52. In the United States, use of most drugs has _______(increased/decreased) over the past 34 years.


53. Adolescent _____________(boys/girls) use more drugs, and use them more often, than _____ _______(boys/girls do).

boys;girls do

54. Drug abuse is defined as using a drug in a manner that is _______________. When the absence of a drug in a person's sytem causes physiological or psychological craving, ___________is apparent.

harmful; addiction.

55. Heavy use of alcohol impairs _____ - ______ and _________by damaging the brain's _______ and ____- _______________.

self-control; memory; hippocampus; prefrontal cortex

56. An important factor in drug use is ______ _____, which is the idea that each generation forgets what the previous generation learned.

generational forgetting

PT1: 1. Accoring to Erikson, the primary task of adolescence is that of establishing

an identity

2. According to developmentalists who study identity formation, foreclosure involves

accepting an identity prematurely, without exploration.

3. A large group of adolescents who share common interests is a


4. The main sources of social support for most young people who are establishing independence from their parents are

peer group

5. What correlates with depression during adolsescence

overly restrictive and controlling parenting.

6. In a crime-ridden neighborhood, parents can protect their adolescents by keeping close watch over activities, friends, and so on. This practice is called

parental monitoring.

7. Conflict between adolescent girls and their mothers is most likely to involve

bickering over hair, neatness, and other daily habits

8. Destructive peer support in which one adolescent shows another how to rebel against authority is called

deviancy training

9. In our society, obvious examples of institutional moratoria on identity formation are

college and the military.

10. In a Disney movie, two high school students encourage eachother to participate in the school musical. This type of peer influence is called

peer facilitaion

11. Jill, who has cut herself and engaged in other self destructuve acts, is receiving treatment for these acts of


12. 13 yr old Adam, who has never doubted his faith, identifies himself as an orthodox member of a particular religious group. A developmentalist would probaby say that Adam's religious identity is

Forclosed memebers of a religious group have, like Adam, never really doubted.
Achieved:is because there is no evidence that Adam has asked the "hard questions" regarding his religious beliefs, a developmentalist would probably say that his religious identity is not achieved.
In moratorium:There is no evidence that Adam's religious identity was formed in opposition to expectations.

13. The early predictors of life-course-persistent offenders include

short attention span, hyperactivity, inadequate emotional regulation. (notice ADHD definition - but it is not that)
Life-coursed-persistent offenders tend to have low intelligence.

14. Regarding gender differences in self-destructive acts, the rate of parasuicide is _____and the rate of suicide is ______.

higher in females; higher in males

15. Conflict between parents and adolescent offspring is

more likely between daughter and their mothers
a. In fact, parent-child conflict is more likely to involve mothers and their daughters.

T/F. 1. Identity achievement before age 18 is elusive.


2. Most adolescents have political views and educational values that are markedly different from those of their parents. T/F

Parent-teen conflicts center on day-to day details, not on politics or moral issues

3. Peer pressure is inherently destructive to the adolescent seeking an identity. T/F

The opposite is just as likely to be true

4. For most adolescents, group socializing and dating precede the establishment of true intimacy with one member of the opposite sex.


5. Wouldwide, virtually every adolescent breaks the law at least once before age 20.


6. Abstinence-only sex education has led to decrease rates of adolescent sex.

Sex education has delayed sexual activity; however, abstinence education has not assisted.

7. Because of their tendency to ruminate, girls are more likely than boys to be clinically depressed.

ruminate: is repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences to the extent of contributing to depression.

8. In finding themselves, teens try to find a consistent identity


9. From age 6 to 18, children feel more confident, on average, each year in most areas of their lives

Opposite is true .

10. Serious, distressing thoughts about killing oneself are most common at about age 15.

15 - 17yrs. (coming from childhood to adolescence)

PT2: 1. What are the arenas of identity formation in Erik Erikson's theory?

religous, political, sexual

2. Is the following a true gender identiy: It is a person's self-definition as male or female


3. Rodesia repeatedly thinks and talks about past experiences to the extent that her doctor believes it is contributing to her depression. Rodesia's behavior is an example of


4. Ray endured severe child abuse, has difficulty controlling his emotions, and exhibits symptoms of autism. These factors would suggest that Ray is at high risk of

becoming a life-course-persistent offender.

5. Thinking about committing suicide is called

suicidal ideation

6. One reason rates of teenage pregnancy in most European nations are lower than those in the United States is that most European schools

begin sex education in elementary school.

7. The adolescent experiencing role confusion is typically

very apathetic
apathetic-having or showing little or no feeling or emotion : spiritless

8. The term that refers to whether a person is attracted to others of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes is

sexual orientation

9. Crime statistics show that during adolescence

males are more likely to be arrested than females

10. Which of the following is the most common problem behavior among adolescents.

minor lawbreaking

11. A time-out period during which a young person experiements with different identities, postponing important choices, is called

a moratorium

12. Heavy use of alcohol impairs memory and self-control by damaging the brain's

hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

13. Describe clinical depression among adolescents

a) at puberty the rate more than double,
-b) Genetic vunerability is a predictor of teenage depression.
-c) The adolescent's school setting is a factor

14. Parent-teen conflict tends to center on issues related to

daily details,such as musical tastes.

15. Suicidal ideation is

more common among females than among males

1. Identity achievement

h. the adolescent establishes his or her own goals and values.

2. foreclosure

a. premature identity formation
without questioning it - once they begin to question they are formating self-identity.

3. clique

j. a cluster of close friends

4. role confusion

c . the adolescent has few commitments to goals or values

5. moratorium

g. a time-out period during which adolescents experiment with alternative identities

6. peer selection

d. process by which adolescents choose their friends based on shared interests

7. peer pressure

i. ecouragement to conform with one's friends in behavior, dress, and attitude.

8. parental monitoring

k. awareness of where children are and what they are doing

9. parasuicide

e. self-destruction act that does not result in death

10. cluster suicide

b. a group of suicides that occur in the same community, school, or time period.

11. generational forgetting

each generation relearns what the previous generation learned.

Key Terms: 1. identity versus role confusion

Erikson's term for the psychosocial risis of adolescence. It refers to adolescents' need to combine their self-understanding and social roles into a coherent identity

2. identity achievement

Erikson's theory that occurs when adolescents attain their new identies by establishing their own goals and values and abandoning some of theose set by their parents and culture and accepting others.

3. role confusion

according to Erikson, lack a commitment to goals or values and are often apathtic about trying to find an identity; sometimes called identity diffusion

4. foreclosure

according to Erikson, the adolescent forms an identity prematurely, accepting parents' or society's roles and values wholesale.

5. According to Erikson, in the process of finding a mature identity, many young people seem to declare an identity moratorium, a socially acceptable time-out during which they experiment with alternative identities without trying to settle on any one.


6. Gender identity

is a person's self-identificaton of being female or male

7. Bickering

refers to the repeated, petty arguing that typically occurs in early adolescence about common, daily life activities. Usually girls and mothers.

8. Parental monitoring

is parent's ongoing awareness about where their children are, what they are doing, and with whom.

9. Peer pressure

refers to the social pressure to conform with one's friends in behavior, dress, and attitude. It may be positive or negative in its effects

10. clique

a group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding others.

11. A crowd

is a larger group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends.

12. Deviancey training

is destructive peer pressure to rebel against authority or social norms.

13. Sexual orientation

refers to a person's sexual and romantic attraction toward a person of the other sex, the same sex, or both sexes.

14. Clinical depression

describes the syndrome in which feelings of hopelessness, lethargy,and worthlessness last in a person for two weeks or longer.

15. Rumination

is repeatedy thinking and talking about past experiences to the extent of contribruting to depression.

16. suicidal ideation

refers to thinking about committing suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.

17. Parasuicide

is any deliberate self-harm that does not result in death.

18. Cluster suicides

are several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief period of time

19. A life-course -persistent offender

is an adolesccnet lawbreaker who later becomes a career criminal

20. adolesceent-limited offender

is a juvenile delinquent whose criminal activity stops by age 21.

21. Generational forgetting

is the tendency of each new generation to forget what the previous generation learned.

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