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Arts and Humanities
music exam 4
Terms in this set (53)
Name three key trends in the 19th century.
In the 19th century, there was development of modern industry, growth of democratic governments and national pride, as well as an increased emphasis on individual thought and feelings in the creative arts.
Nationalism is one of the many consequences of the French Revolution.
Name two important German writers from the late 18th century who helped spread the new artistic spirit known as Romanticism.
Johann Wolfgang von Gotte and Friedrich von Schiller were two important German writers from the late 18th century who helped spread the new artistic spirit known as Romanticism.
Which historical time period most captured the imagination of Romantic readers?
The Middle Age most captured the imagination of the Romantics.
What are the five (5) key themes of Romantic music.
Nature, the "exotic" and foreign, national themes, extremes of emotion and scale, and individual feeling were the five key themes of Romantic music.
During the 19th century, music became more and more a public concern and many cities established their own symphony orchestras.
Orchestras in the Classic era are bigger than orchestras in the Romantic era.
Orchestration is the technique of manipulating orchestral sounds.
Romantic music has greater extremes of tempo and dynamics, longer melodies, and a more flexible form than Classic music.
Who invented the Pianoforte, where and when?
Bartolomeo Cristofori created the Pianoforte around 1700 in Florence.
define program music
Program music is music that tells some kind of story; for example a love story, a spiritual journey, scenes from nature, or a child's reverie.
define absolute music
Absolute music is the term for music that has no meaning outside the meaning of music itself and the feelings it produces for listeners.
Nineteenth-century composers invented the idea of "program music."
While some musical work can be gigantic in size, length and volume in the romantic era, it is also frequent to hear "miniature pieces" written for one instrument only and in which the music is very short and intimate.
Name three (3) important musical genres (either vocal or instrumental) of the 19th century. ("Chamber music" is too broad a term, you need to specify.)
Opera and symphony continued to be a popular genre of the 19th century. For vocal music, song and the Requiem Mass were two important Romantic genres. Concerto was a favored orchestral genre which symbolized the Romantic idea of the individual against the group.
what is a symphonic poem?
A Symphonic Poem a link between program music and literature. It was a new genre in the 19th century. It is a relatively short orchestral work in one continuous movement. They are always programmatic.
Who was the greatest Italian violinist of the early 19th century?
Nicolo Paganini was the greatest Italian violinist.
The place of women in the music world became to broaden in the 19th century, and many of them were performers, hostesses of salons, or financial supporters and critics.
What is the main difference between a strophic song and a through-composed song?
Romantic songs may be either strophic or through-composed. Strophic songs use the same music for each stanza of the poetry. Through-composed songs has different music for each stanza.
Which Viennese composer wrote over 900 works, including 600 songs, in his short musical career?
Franz Schubert was a Viennese composer who wrote over 900 works, including 600 songs, in his short musical career.
Name three (3) works written by Schubert.
Die schone Müllerin ("The Pretty Miller-Maid"), Winterreise ("Winter's Journey"), and Die Forelle ("The Trout") are three works written by Schubert.
Which French composer wrote Symphonie Fantastique, the opera Les Troyens, and was known for his great sense of orchestration and use of gigantic orchestras?
Hector Belioz was a French composer who wrote Symphonie Fantastique, the opera Les Troyens, and was known for his great sense of orchestration and use of gigantic orchestras.
Which Romantic composer regarded the music of the past with great respect and continued the Classic tradition in his works?
Felix Mendelssohn was a Romantic composer who regarded the music of the past with great respect and continued the Classic tradition in his works.
Which female composer and pianist was discouraged by both her father and brother to pursue a career in music?
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel was a female composer and pianist who was discouraged by both her father and brother to pursue a career in music.
Which Franco-Polish composer wrote almost exclusively for the piano?
Fryderyk Chopin was a Franco-Polish composer who wrote almost exclusively for the piano.
Which composer committed suicide by throwing himself in the Rhine River in 1854 and died in a mental institution in 1856?
Robert Schumann was the composer who committed suicide by throwing himself in the Rhine River in 1854 and died in a mental institution in 1856.
Unlike Fanny Mendelssohn, Clara Schumann was able to maintain an international reputation as concert pianist and was also a renowned composer.
What were the three most important musical genres from the 1850s to the 1870s?
The three most important musical genres from the 1850s to the 1870s were solo piano works, symphonic program music, and opera.
Who was the greatest composer of symphonic poems and programmatic symphonies of the mid-Romantic period?
Liszt was the greatest composer of symphonic poems and programmatic symphonies during the mid-Romantic period.
What are the three national schools of operas during the 19th century?
There were the French, the Italian, and the German national schools of opera during the 19th century.
What were the three most common types of 19th-century French opera?
The three most common types of 19th century French opera were Grand Opera, Lyric Opera, and Comic opera.
How is Nationalism reflected in the arts?
In each country, local language was fostered therefore books of national poetry, folk tales and dances, operas based on national legend or history, and folk tunes became increasingly popular.
Which Romantic composer symbolized opera in Italy?
Giuseppe Verdi was the musical symbol in Italy.
Name three (3) operas by Verdi.
"Nabucco," "Rigoletto," "Il trouvatore," and "La traviata" were operas written by Verdi.
Which Romantic composer symbolized opera in Germany?
Richard Wagner was the musical symbol in Germany.
Name three (3) operas (or "music dramas") by Wagner.
"Rienzi," "The Flying Dutchman," "Tannbauser," and "Lohrngrin" were works written by Wagner.
Wagner wrote both music and poetry to his tetralogy The Ring of the Nibelungs.
What is a "Leitmotive"?
A leitmotive is a musical phrase that is associated with objects, characters, events, thoughts, and feelings. It adds meaning to the text and offers psychological insights into the characters and the reasons behind their actions.
Name one (1) Russian Nationalistic composer of the nineteenth century.
A Russian Nationalistic composer of the nineteenth century is Modest Mussorgsky.
Name two (2) Bohemian composers of the nineteenth century.
Two Bohemian composers of the nineteenth century were Bedrich Smetana and Antonin Dvorak.
Until the end of the 19th century, American music and music making were still strongly influenced by the European tradition.
Name one (1) Moravian composer of the nineteenth century.
Leos Janarek was a Moravian composer of the nineteenth century.
Name two (2) Scandinavian composers of the nineteenth century.
Edvard Gried and Jan Sibelius were two Scandinavian composers of the nineteenth century.
Name two (2) Spanish composers of the nineteenth century.
Enrique Granados and Isaac Albeniez were two Spanish composers of the nineteenth century.
Name two (2) French composers of the nineteenth century.
Camille Saint-Saens and Gabriel Faure were two French composers of the nineteenth century.
Which Russian composer, born in 1840, wrote the ballets Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker?
Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer, born in 1840, wrote the ballets Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker.
According to the 1886 first international convention on copyright, how many years is a work protected after a composer's death?
Which composer, protégé of Robert and Clara Schumann, avoided the fashionable genres of Romanticism and turned, instead to past forms in his music?
Johannes Brahms was a composer, protégé of Robert and Clara Schumann, and avoided the fashionable genres of Romanticism and turned, instead to past forms in his music
Who was the greatest opera composer of the late 19th century?
Giacomo Puccini was the greatest opera composer of the late nineteenth century.
Name three (3) operas by Puccini.
"Manon Lescaut," "Madama Butterfly," and "La fanciulla del Wast" were three operas written by Puccini.
In Puccini's operas, the action is not continuous and there is always a clear distinction between recitatives and arias.
Which Bohemian composer is famous for writing numerous orchestral song cycles?
Gustav Mahler was a Bohemian composer that is famous for writing numerous orchestral song cycles.
Alma Mahler, Gustav's wife, was also a composer but gave up her career to foster her husband's.
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What is the most common text-setting style in troubadour and trouvère song?
Arias such as this one are designed to convey information and further the plot of the opera story. They are usually shorter than recitatives. (Purcell - Dido's Lament)
List the four main movements of the suite.