104 terms

Biology Final!

The functions of the cytoskeleton do not include...
membrane synthesis
Microfilaments such as actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments form the cell supporting structure called...
Animal cells excrete glycoproteins outside of the plasms membrane to produce a _____ which is directly linked to the cytoskeleton.
cell wall
What cytoskeleton filament has a tough, rope-like structure, and is not able to rapidly polarize or depolarize?
Intermediate filaments
In cells, vesicles travel by moving along ____
The part of the membrane that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of amino acids that are _____
A phospholipid has a polar end and a nonpolar end. Because of this, water molecules form...
hydrogen bonds with the polar end of the phospholipid molecule
Which of the following is NOT part of the cell membrane?
What is not a typical function of the plasma membrane?
Permanence in composition
While water continually orients phospholipids into a lipid bilayer, it does not fix the lipids permanently into position. Thus the bilayer is considered to be _____ in nature.
The movement of substance from regions of lower concentration is called...
A type of transport of a solute across a membrane, up its concentration gradient, using protein carriers driven by the expenditure of chemical energy, is known as...
Active Transport
If you were a macrophage, which process would you use to engulf and destroy foreign particles?
Energy is defined as...
The capacity to do work
Enzymes are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that...
Is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule
ATP gives up energy when it is converted to...
ADP and phosphate
In an experiment described in a chemistry lab book, the directions state that after mixing chemicals A and B and waiting 5 minutes, that A will be oxidized. This means that...
Chemical A has lost electrons to chemical B
One type of biochemical pathway regulation is referred to as feedback inhibition. This means that as the...
Cell produces more quantity of product through a biochemical pathway, the build-up of that product will inhibit the activity of that product's production
The reaction C6H12O6 + 6CO2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O, when it occurs in living cells is known as...
When oxygen is limiting, during heavy exercise, muscle cells revert to ______ fermentation for energy production.
Lactic Acid
All of the following are the end products of glycolysis except...
The enzymes catalyzing the reactions of glycolysis are found in the...
Regardless of the electron or hydrogen acceptor used, one of the products of fermentation is always...
What is not true about glycolysis?
Oxygen is necessary for glycolysis to take place
What is the correct sequence concerning glucose catabolism?
Glycolysis -> Pyruvate -> Acetyl CoA -> Krebs Cycle -> Electron Transport Chain
Pyruvate oxidation results in _______, which enters the Krebs cycle.
Acetyl CoA
In eukaryotic cells, after glycolysis, all of the remaining reactions of glucose oxidation take place in the....
A molecule that stores energy by linking charged phosphate groups near each other is called...
What step of glycolysis are two ATP molecules required?
Glucose Priming
A single glucose molecule can drive the Krebs cycle...
2 turns
In the Krebs cycle, what does not take place?
Pyruvate molecules are restored to the beginning of the Krebs cycle
In aerobic respiration, one of the products of is CO2. Which of the following parts of aerobic respiration generates CO2?
Pyruvate oxidation and the Krebs cycle
In mitochondria, chemiosmotic generation of ATP is driven by...
a difference in H+ concentration on the two sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane.
The oxygen utilized in cellular aerobic respiration finally ends up in...
The components of the electron transport chain are located in the...
Inner membrane of the mitochondria
The Calvin cycle is driven by ATP and _____ produced in the light reactions.
Clusters of chlorophyll and accessory pigments are called _________.
The general process whereby protons accumulate on one side of a membrane and can flow back across the membrane through ATP synthase resulting in ATP production is called _________________.
The energy released in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to...
Develop a H+ gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
In the dark reactions of photosynthesis, CO2 is added to a five-carbon sugar-phosphate known as...
When ATP levels are high, oxidative pathways are inhibited, so acetyl-CoA is channeled into...
Fatty Acid Synthesis
Most plants incorporate carbon dioxide into sugars by means of a cycle of reactions called the...
Calvin cycle
Chlorophyll b absorbs in green wavelengths of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb. In this respect, chlorophyll b acts as...
Accessory pigments
The dark (light-independent) reactions of photosynthesis are those that...
Convert CO2 into reduced molecules (sugars)
In which part of the chloroplasts are the Calvin cycle enzymes located?
In the Calvin cycle, when CO2 is released without producing ATP or NADPH, this process is called...
Most of the atmospheric oxygen occurs as a result of photosynthesis. From what molecules is the oxygen derived?
A method devised by succulent desert plants to reduce the problem of photorespiration is...
The CAM metabolism
Which of the following is not part of the light-dependent reactions?
Calvin cycle
Primary growth in plants originates in...
Apical meristems
Secondary growth of plants results from cell division in which type of meristem?
Lateral Meristem
The most distinctive characteristic of leaf mesophyll cells is that they are filled with...
Many chloroplasts
A birdhouse is nailed into a tree 6 feet up from the ground. If the tree grows about 2 feet taller each year, where will the birdhouse be 25 years later?
6 feet
How could you distinguish between a root hair versus a very small root?
Root hairs are parts of single cells, roots are multicellular
Mosses, like ferns and certain other tracheophyte plants, require...
Water to reproduce sexually
What plant cell is not designed for transport?
In the plants that utilize the CAM pathway, what happens to the stomata?
The stomata open in the evening but close in the morning.
Which of the following tissues transport water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots?
The waterproof cuticle covering the epidermis of land plants helps prevent dehydration, much like the skin of some land animals. As a consequence, what other evolutionary adaptation was important for most land plants?
Stomates in the leaves
Plants, and their predecessors, green algae, do not share the property of
Having a system of roots and stems
Survival on land for organisms is difficult because of the problem of
Plants show a basic life cycle which involves the alternation of generations between a(n)...
Sporophyte and Gametophyte
Which of the following features are common to both moss leaves and true leaves?
Cholorphyll A and B
All plants are thought to have arisen from what common ancestor?
Green algae
What method do plants NOT use to conduct water?
Through the Casparian strip
Which of the following was a key innovation specifically involved in the evolution of large plants?
Vascular tissues
Photosynthesis can occur only if the stomata are open to allow the entry of...
Which of the following statements about Angiosperms would be false?
Free water is required for pollination
The following vascular tissue transports sugars and amino acids from the leaves to other parts of the plant...
On a short-term basis, water loss in plants may be controlled by the...
Closing of the stomates in the leaves to limit transpiration.
The process of moving water through a plant by transpiration works because water molecules stick to each other through...
Hydrogen bonds
Flowering plants use animals or wind to transfer ________ between flowers.
Which of the following characteristics are NOT necessary to being "alive"?
What are the three domains of life?
Prokarya, Eukarya, and Archaea; animals, plants. and fungi are part of the domain Eukarya.
What is not true about a useful hypothesis?
It can be proven
The _____ of water molecules determines its chemistry and thus the chemistry of life.
When atoms gain or lose electrons, they become negatively or postively charged and are known as...
The number of protons in a given atom is equal to its _____ number.
Water molecules are polar with ends that exhibit partial positive and negative charges. Such opposite charges make water molecules attract each other through bonds called...
Hydrogen bonds
When two atoms share a pair of electrons, the bonding is referred to as...
Covalent bonds
What is not a reason that water is extremely important in living things?
It is an excellent buffer
All atoms tend to fill their outer energy levels with the maximum number of electrons, usually eight. Depending on whether the atoms satisfy this simple octet rule or not will allow the prediction of....
The Chemical behavior of the atoms
Nonpolar molecules tend to aggregate in water because they are forces to come into close proximity with each other due to...
Hydrophobic interactions
Non-polarity and insolubility characterize biological compounds known as...
Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called..
The simplest and the most common monosaccarhide is a six-carbon sugar called...
This atom in its unbound state has four valence electrons. These electrons readily form single, double, and triple bonds among themselves to become stable. This atom is...
Humans are unable to get metabolic energy from cellulose because
They do not have the enzyme necessary to seperate the glucose monomers from the cellulose.
What is not matched incorrectly?
Cellulose--Polymer of glucose
Proteins possess all of the following functions except...
Cell recognition
Which of the following is not a type of lipid?
Vitamin A
Imagine that you were able to see a nucleotide under a high-powered microscope. As you scan the nucleotide you see a U nitrogen base. Without seeing any other part of the nucleotide you know that...
It is either a DNA nucleotide or an RNA nucleotide.
All _____ contain a plasma membrane.
Functional groups found in amino acids include all of the following except...
The delivery system of eukaryotic cells called the ______ can collect, package, modify, and transport molecules.
Golgi Apparatus
The Cell Theory states that the cell is the basic unit of life, all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and ....
All cells arise from division of previously existing cells.
The Cell Theory states that the cell is the basic unit of life, all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and...
All cells arise from division of previously existing cells
Cells tend to be very small because...
As they get bigger, their volume increases much faster than their surface area
Chaperonins have what function?
Help proteins fold correctly
Which of the following is not present in all eukaryotic cells?
Cell Wall
What is not considered to be a part of the endomembrane system?
Compared with eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells...
Are relatively simple
Cell of your salivary glands, which secrete lots and lots of protein, would most likely contain a lot of...
Rough ER
The genetic material of which kind of cells is included in a single, circular molecule of DNA devoid of any histone proteins?