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Ice is a substance with a high albedo, which means it

A. requires much heat to raise its temperature
by 1°C
B. absorbs most of the light that falls on it
C. reflects most of the light that falls on it
D. strongly refracts the light that falls on it

C. reflects most of the light that falls on it

Because glacial advance is driven by gravity, it is impossible for glaciers to advance over perfectly flat terrain.

A. true
B. false

B. false

Stratified, sorted sand and gravel are deposited by

A. mountain glaciers
B. continental glaciers
C. glacial outwash streams
D. wind

A. mountain glaciers

Glacial ice exhibits ____________ behavior near the top, but ____________ behavior beneath a depth of 60 m.
A. brittle; plastic
B. plastic; brittle
C. solid; liquid
D. plastic;elastic

A. brittle; plastic

A glacier will always advance from its source area if the rate of accumulation is greater than the rate of

A. subsidence
B. melting
C. ablation
D. abrution

C. ablation

The first scientist to theorize the past presence of glaciers in Europe was

A. Isaac Newton
B. Charles Darwin
C. Walter Alvarez
D. Louis Agassiz

D. Louis Agassiz

At the present, glaciers cover about ____________ of the surface of the continents.

A. 1%
B. 5%
C. 10%
D. 20%

C. 10%

Today, continental glaciers are limited to Antarctica and

A. Alaska
B. Greenland
C. Canada
D. Siberia

B. Greenland

An intermediate product in the transformation of snow to glacial ice is ____________.

A. firn
B. sublimation
C. ablation
D. terminus

A. firn

Sediments deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are
characterized by ____________.

A. uniformly coarse grain size
B. uniformly fine grain size
C. an absence of sorting
D. graded bedding

C. an absence of sorting

Sediments deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are termed ____________.

A. firn
B. loess
C. outwash
D. till

D. till

Given the modern continental configuration, it is much easier for large continental ice sheets to become established in the ____________ hemisphere than in the ____________

A. eastern; western
B. western; eastern
C. northern; southern
D. southern; northern

C. northern; southern

An important long-term factor determining whether glacial ice will form on the continents has likely been the proportion of which gas in the atmosphere?

A. oxygen
B. nitrogen
C. carbon dioxide
D. carbon monoxide

C. carbon dioxide

That periodic changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity and magnitude, as well as in the direction (precession) of Earth's axial tilt, affect the advance and retreat of ice sheets was first proposed
by ____________.

A. Richter
B. Milankovitch
C. Mohorivic
D. Lyell

B. Milankovitch

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