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Infections occur when a person

swallows microbes in or on food

all infectious diseases are caused by

microorganisms or their products

Natural passive acquired immunity would result from

ingesting colostrums

Artificial passive acquired immunity would result from-receiving a

gamma globulin

The stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the
pathogen is at peak activity is-

period of illness.

The time from when pathogen first enters the body and begins to multiply until
symptoms first appear is the

incubation period.

The initial brief period of early general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is

prodromal stage.

The subjective evidence of disease sensed by the patient is termed


The objective measurable evidence of disease evaluated by an observer is termed


The study of frequency and distribution of disease in a defined population is


The number of new cases of disease in a population over a specific period of time
compared with the healthy population is

incidence rate.

A disease that has a study frequency over time in a population


The primary natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called


Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to other is


An animal such as an arthropod that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is


An inamimate object that harbor and transmits a pathogen is a-


Which of following is an example of vertical transmission-

mother transmitting syphilis
to her fetus

Reservoirs include

humans, animals soil and water.

Which portal of entry is the most commonly used by a pathogen


The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial form including


The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce
microorganisms and debris to safe level


The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit
vegetative pathogens


Sterilization is achieved by

steam autoclave.

Disinfection of beverages, such as apple juice, milk and wine is optimally achieved by


Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called


Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed

-broad spectrum

Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include

readily delivered to the site
of infection, high toxicity against microbial cells, do no cause serious side effects in
humans and remains active in body tissues and fluids

There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan and antihelminth drugs compare to
antibacterial these organism

are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity
is difficult

The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include-

chromosomal mutations, synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure, prevention of
drug entry into the cell and alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.

Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed-

narrow spectrum

The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery

Joseph Lister.

When placed into a hypertonic solution a bacterial cell will


The goal of medical asepsis is to kill pathogens, whereas the goal of surgical asepsis is to

all microorganism

Which of the following is least likely to be taken into consideration when deciding which
antibiotic to prescribed for a patient

patients weight.

Which of the following is least likely to lead to drug resistance in bacteria

receiving a
gene that codes for the production of a capsule.

Which one of the following is not a common mechanism by which antimicrobial agents
kill or inhibit thel growth of bacteria

destruction of capsules.

Which of the following scientists discovered penicillin

Alexander Fleming.

Which of the following virulence factors enables bacteria to avoid phagocytosis by white
blood cells-


Which of the following terms best describe chlamydial genital infection in the United

epidemic disease.

Which of the following are considered reservoirs of infection-carriers

food and water and rabid animals.

Which of the following arthropods is the vector of Lyme disease


The most common zoonotic disease in the U.S.

Lyme disease.

A pandemic disease is a disease that is occurring

in epidemic proportions in many
countries simultaneously.

An example of a fomite would be

a drinking glass used by a patient, wound dressings
and soiled bed linens

Which of the following virulence factors enables bacteria to attach to tissues


All clinical specimens submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Lab must be-

properly and
carefully collected, properly labeled and properly transported to the laboratory.

Who is the primarily responsible for the quality of specimens submitted to the CML

the person who collects the specimen.

When collecting a clean-catch, mid-stream urine the purpose of collecting in the middle
portion of the urine is

microorganisms that inhabit the urethral opening are flushed

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