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Infections occur when a person
swallows microbes in or on food
all infectious diseases are caused by
microorganisms or their products
Natural passive acquired immunity would result from
Artificial passive acquired immunity would result from-receiving a
The stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the
pathogen is at peak activity is-
period of illness.
The time from when pathogen first enters the body and begins to multiply until
symptoms first appear is the
The initial brief period of early general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches is
The subjective evidence of disease sensed by the patient is termed
The objective measurable evidence of disease evaluated by an observer is termed
The study of frequency and distribution of disease in a defined population is
The number of new cases of disease in a population over a specific period of time
compared with the healthy population is
A disease that has a study frequency over time in a population
The primary natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called
Someone who inconspicuously harbors a pathogen and spreads it to other is
An animal such as an arthropod that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is
An inamimate object that harbor and transmits a pathogen is a-
Which of following is an example of vertical transmission-
mother transmitting syphilis
to her fetus
humans, animals soil and water.
Which portal of entry is the most commonly used by a pathogen
The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial form including
The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce
microorganisms and debris to safe level
The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit
Sterilization is achieved by
Disinfection of beverages, such as apple juice, milk and wine is optimally achieved by
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called
Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed
Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include
readily delivered to the site
of infection, high toxicity against microbial cells, do no cause serious side effects in
humans and remains active in body tissues and fluids
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan and antihelminth drugs compare to
antibacterial these organism
are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity
The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include-
chromosomal mutations, synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure, prevention of
drug entry into the cell and alteration of drug receptors on cell targets.
Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed-
The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery
When placed into a hypertonic solution a bacterial cell will
The goal of medical asepsis is to kill pathogens, whereas the goal of surgical asepsis is to
Which of the following is least likely to be taken into consideration when deciding which
antibiotic to prescribed for a patient
Which of the following is least likely to lead to drug resistance in bacteria
gene that codes for the production of a capsule.
Which one of the following is not a common mechanism by which antimicrobial agents
kill or inhibit thel growth of bacteria
destruction of capsules.
Which of the following scientists discovered penicillin
Which of the following virulence factors enables bacteria to avoid phagocytosis by white
Which of the following terms best describe chlamydial genital infection in the United
Which of the following are considered reservoirs of infection-carriers
food and water and rabid animals.
Which of the following arthropods is the vector of Lyme disease
The most common zoonotic disease in the U.S.
A pandemic disease is a disease that is occurring
in epidemic proportions in many
An example of a fomite would be
a drinking glass used by a patient, wound dressings
and soiled bed linens
Which of the following virulence factors enables bacteria to attach to tissues
All clinical specimens submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Lab must be-
carefully collected, properly labeled and properly transported to the laboratory.
Who is the primarily responsible for the quality of specimens submitted to the CML
the person who collects the specimen.
When collecting a clean-catch, mid-stream urine the purpose of collecting in the middle
portion of the urine is
microorganisms that inhabit the urethral opening are flushed