5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Incorrect Method of Reasoning answers
- Source argument AKA ad hominen
- 3 logical features of conditional reasoning
- Numbers and percentage errors
- Central assumption of causal conclusions
- a this type of flawed argument attacks the person (or source) instead of the argument they advance. because the LSAT is concerned solely with argument forms, a speaker can never validly attack the character or motives or a person; instead, a speaker must always attack the argument advanced by the person. 2 forms: 1. Focusing on the motives of the source 2. Focusing on the actions of the source. \n
- b The makers of the LSAT do not think that there are multiple causes for the same effect. When an LSAT speaker concludes that one occurance caused another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that consequently the stated cause will ALWAYS produce the effect.
- c 1. new element answers - an answer that describes something that did not occure or describes an element new to the argument cannot be correct 2. Half right, half wrong answers - LSAT makers like to start off with something that happened, then end with something that did not. Half wrong=ALL wrong 3. Exaggerated answers - take a situation from the stimulus and stretch that situation to make an extreme statement that is not supported by the stimulus. Just because an answer choice contains extreme language DOES NOT mean that the answer is incorrect! 4. The Opposite Answer 5. The Reverse Answer - these are attractive because they contain familiar elements from the stimulus, but reverses them in the answer.\n
- d occurs when an author improperly equates a percentage with a definate quantity or vice versa. \n
- e 1. The sufficient condition does not make the necessary condition occur. That is, the sufficient condition does not actively cause the necessary condition to happen. 2. Temporally speaking, either condition can occur first, or the two conditions can occur at the same time. 3. The conditional statement reflected by the author does not have to reflect reality.
5 Multiple choice questions
- 1. Watch for answers starting with the phrase "at least one" or "at least some". When an assumption answer choice starts with one of these phrases it is usually right. But ALWAYS verify with A.N.T. 2. Avoid answers that claim an idea was the most important consideration for the author. Typical structures: "The primary purpose", "the top priority", "the main factor". In every assumption question these answers have been wrong. 3. Watch for the use of "not" or negatives in assumption answer choices. Do not rule out a negative answer choice just because you are used to seeing assumptions as a positive part of the argument. "no" "not" "never"
- Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
- 1. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present and depending on the question, you will help shore up the argument in some way. 2. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. Your task is to determine which answer choice best meets the question posed in the stem.
- occurs when an author attempts to attack an opponent's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts and refashions the argument, making it weaker in the process. Often prephrased by "what you're saying is" or "if I understand you correctly".\n
- Separate the answer choices into "contenders" and "loser". After completing this process, review the contenders and decide which answer correct.
5 True/False questions
Assumptions and conditionality: the two types of answer choices normally produced are? → Allows you to decide between contenders or to confirm that the answer you have chosen is correct. 1. Logically negate the answer choices under consideration. Usually consists of taking a "not" out of a sentence or putting a "not" in a sentence. 2. The negated answer choice that attacks the argument will be the correct answer. When the correct answer is negated, the answer must weaken the argument.
LSAT Conclusion trick for Method AP questions → They often feature 2 conclusions (main and sub.), when the main conclusion is typically place in the first or second sentence and the last sentence contains the sub. conclusion. The sub. conclusion is set off by conclusion indicators while the main conclusion is not. USE CONCLUSION ID METHOD.\n
Main Point Questions → Negates both conditions, creating a statement that does not have to be true. Given: A+ --> Study Mistaken Negation: Not A+ --> Not Study
Rules for Family #3 → 1. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present and depending on the question, you will help shore up the argument in some way. 2. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. Your task is to determine which answer choice best meets the question posed in the stem.
False analogy → assumes that only 2 courses of action are available when there may be others. \n