5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- How to solve Justify questions mechanistically
- Weakening conditional reasoning
- Words used to introduce a necessary condition
- Weaken question signal words
- Fundamental rules for strengthen, justify the conclusion and assumption questions
- a 1. Any "new" element in the conclusion will appear in the correct answer. 2. Elements that are common to the conclusion and at least one premise normally do not appear in the correct answer. 3. Elements that appear in the premises but not the conclusion usually appear in the correct answer.
- b To weaken a conditional conclusion, attack the necessary condition by showing that the necessary condition does not need to occur in order for the sufficient condition to occur. With a combo of a conditional reasoning stimulus and a weaken question, immediately look for an answer that attacks the necessary conclusion.
- c 1. The stimulus will almost always contain an argument you must identify, isolate and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct answer choices impact the conclusion 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors. Read carefully to sure up the argument 4. These questions often yield strong prephrases 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new info. Just because a fact or idea is not mentioned in the stimulus is not grounds for dismissing an answer choice.
- d then, only, only if, must, required, unless, except, until, without.
- e Weaken, attack, undermine, refute, argue against, call into question, cast doubt, challenge, damage, counter, When evaluating answers ask yourself: "Would this answer choice make the author reconsider his position or force the author to respond?"
5 Multiple choice questions
- mistaken negation and reversal exp: taking the non-existence of something as evidence that a necessary precondition for that thing also did not exist" (MN) "mistakes being sufficient to justify punishment for being required to justify it" (MR)\n
- 1. new element answers - an answer that describes something that did not occure or describes an element new to the argument cannot be correct 2. Half right, half wrong answers - LSAT makers like to start off with something that happened, then end with something that did not. Half wrong=ALL wrong 3. Exaggerated answers - take a situation from the stimulus and stretch that situation to make an extreme statement that is not supported by the stimulus. Just because an answer choice contains extreme language DOES NOT mean that the answer is incorrect! 4. The Opposite Answer 5. The Reverse Answer - these are attractive because they contain familiar elements from the stimulus, but reverses them in the answer.\n
- 1. Opposite answers. These answers do the exact opposite of what is needed. 2. Shell game answers. Occurs when an idea or concept is raised in the stimulus and then a very similar idea appears in the answer choices, but the idea is changed just enough to be incorrect but still attractive. 3. Out of scope answers. Simply miss the point of the argument and raise issues that are either not related to the argument or tangential to the argument.
- 1. assuming a causal relationship on the basis of the sequence of events 2. assuming a causal relationship when only a correlation exists 3. failure to consider an alternate cause for the effect or an alternate cause for both the cause and the effect 4. failure to consider that the events may be reversed. \n
- Always ask: Do the given facts support the conclusion? Do the premises strongly suggest that the conclusion would be true? Does the conclusion feel like an inevitable result of the premises? Or Does the conclusion go beyond the scope of the info in the premises? How persuasive is the argument?
5 True/False questions
Strengthen questions ask you to identify the answer choice that best supports the argument. 2 common features → 1. The stem uses the word strengthen or a synonym (support, helps, most justifies) 2. The stem indicates that you should accept the answer choices are true.
Primary Objective #9 → If all 5 answer choices appear to be "losers", return to the stimulus and re-evaluate the argument.
Assumptions and causality: typical correct answer categories → A. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect B. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs, assumption answers affirm the cause/effect relationship C. Show that when the cause does not occur, the effect doe not occur D. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed E. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement is accurate or eliminates possible problems with the data.
Family #1: Prove → Stimulus (accepted) ----> Answer Choices (affected or determined) AKA: must be or prove family must be true, main point, point at issue, method of reasoning, flaw in the reasoning, parallel reasoning.
Prephrasing Method of Reasoning questions → 1. You can use only the info in the stimulus to prove the correct answer choice 2. Any answer choice that describes an element or a situation that does not occur in the stimulus is incorrect Method of Reasoning questions use a variety of formats, but they all are asking what method, technique, strategy, or process the author is using.