5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Straw Man
- Primary Objective #9
- LSAT Conclusion trick for Method AP questions
- Rules for Family #3
- Premise Indicators
- a If all 5 answer choices appear to be "losers", return to the stimulus and re-evaluate the argument.
- b 1. The info in the stimulus is supect. There are often reasoning errors present, and you will further weaken the argument in some way. 2. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. The task is to determine which answer choice best attacks the argument in the stimulus.
- c They often feature 2 conclusions (main and sub.), when the main conclusion is typically place in the first or second sentence and the last sentence contains the sub. conclusion. The sub. conclusion is set off by conclusion indicators while the main conclusion is not. USE CONCLUSION ID METHOD.\n
- d because, since, for, for example, for the reason that, in that, given that, as indicated by, due to, owing to, this can be seen from, we know this by.
- e occurs when an author attempts to attack an opponent's position by ignoring the actual statements made by the opposing speaker and instead distorts and refashions the argument, making it weaker in the process. Often prephrased by "what you're saying is" or "if I understand you correctly".\n
5 Multiple choice questions
- Whenever you identify a causal relationship in the conclusion of an LSAT problem, immediately prepare to either weaken or strengthen the argument. Tasks for Weaken questions...must always identify a causal conclusion. Then ask if there relationship must be as stated by the author or if another explanation can be found? A. Find alternate cause for the stated effect B. Show that even the cause occurs, the effect does not occur C. Show that although the effect occurs, the cause did not occur D. Show that the stated relationship is reversed E. Show that a statistical problem exists with the data used to make the causal statement.
- The makers of the LSAT do not think that there are multiple causes for the same effect. When an LSAT speaker concludes that one occurance caused another, that speaker also assumes that the stated cause is the only possible cause of the effect and that consequently the stated cause will ALWAYS produce the effect.
- 1. The stimulus will almost always contain an argument you must identify, isolate and assess the premises and the conclusion of the argument 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct answer choices impact the conclusion 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors. Read carefully to sure up the argument 4. These questions often yield strong prephrases 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include new info. Just because a fact or idea is not mentioned in the stimulus is not grounds for dismissing an answer choice.
- 1. Stimulus will contain an argument. Must isolate and identify and assess the premises and the conclusion. 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct Weaken answers impact the conclusion. 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present and you must read the argument very carefully. 4. Weaken questions often yield strong prephrases. Be sure to consider the range of possible answers before looking at the answers. 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. Weaken answer choices can bring into consideration info outside of or tangential to the stimulus. CANNOT dismiss answers on grounds of new info.
- at least on of the two, possibly both.
5 True/False questions
Words used to introduce cause and effect relationships. (memorize) → caused by because of responsible for reason for leads to induced by promoted by determined by produced by product of played a role in was a factor in is an effect of.
Conclusion Identification Method → Take the statements under consideration and place them in an arrangement that forces once to be the conclusion and the other(s) to be the premise (s). Use premise and conclusion indicators to achieve this end. Once the pieces are arranged, determine if the arrangement makes logical sense. If so, you have the conclusion. If not reverse the arrangement.
Primary Objective #7 → Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
Incorrect answers in Point at Issue questions → Think about the structure of the argument before examining the answer choices. Do not expect to see the exact prephrase, there are too many variations. Make an abstract prephrase then examine each answer to see if it paraphrases the prephrase.\n
3 quirks of assumption question answer choices → 1. The stem uses the word assumption, presupposition or some variation 2. The stem NEVER uses the word "if" or any other sufficient condition indicator. The stem will likely contain a necessary condition indicator such as required or unless. The correct answer is a statement the author must believe in order for the conclusion to make sense.