5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Source argument AKA ad hominen
- Primary Objective #3
- Primary Objective #6
- How to attack a causal conclusion
- Rules for Family #3
- a 1. The info in the stimulus is supect. There are often reasoning errors present, and you will further weaken the argument in some way. 2. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. The task is to determine which answer choice best attacks the argument in the stimulus.
- b If the stimulus contains an argument, determine whether the argument is strong or weak.
- c Prephrase: after reading the question stem, take a moment to mentally formulate your answer to the question stem.
- d Whenever you identify a causal relationship in the conclusion of an LSAT problem, immediately prepare to either weaken or strengthen the argument. Tasks for Weaken questions...must always identify a causal conclusion. Then ask if there relationship must be as stated by the author or if another explanation can be found? A. Find alternate cause for the stated effect B. Show that even the cause occurs, the effect does not occur C. Show that although the effect occurs, the cause did not occur D. Show that the stated relationship is reversed E. Show that a statistical problem exists with the data used to make the causal statement.
- e this type of flawed argument attacks the person (or source) instead of the argument they advance. because the LSAT is concerned solely with argument forms, a speaker can never validly attack the character or motives or a person; instead, a speaker must always attack the argument advanced by the person. 2 forms: 1. Focusing on the motives of the source 2. Focusing on the actions of the source. \n
5 Multiple choice questions
- They h ave failed to fully and accurately identify the conclusion of the argument. If a conclusion is present, you MUST identify it prior to proceeding on to the question stem.
- occurs when the author uses an analogy that is two disimilar to the original situation to be applicable. \n
- Refer to the likelihood of occurence or the obligation present, as in "The mayor should resign." "the law will never pass." Examples: (do not need to memorize) must, will, always, not always, probably, likely, would, never, rarely, could, not necessarily. \n
- 1. new element answers - an answer that describes something that did not occure or describes an element new to the argument cannot be correct 2. Half right, half wrong answers - LSAT makers like to start off with something that happened, then end with something that did not. Half wrong=ALL wrong 3. Exaggerated answers - take a situation from the stimulus and stretch that situation to make an extreme statement that is not supported by the stimulus. Just because an answer choice contains extreme language DOES NOT mean that the answer is incorrect! 4. The Opposite Answer 5. The Reverse Answer - these are attractive because they contain familiar elements from the stimulus, but reverses them in the answer.\n
- Refer to the amount or quantity in the relationship. Examples: (do not need to memorize) all, every, most, many, several, sole, only, not all, none, few.
5 True/False questions
3 quirks of assumption question answer choices → Allows you to decide between contenders or to confirm that the answer you have chosen is correct. 1. Logically negate the answer choices under consideration. Usually consists of taking a "not" out of a sentence or putting a "not" in a sentence. 2. The negated answer choice that attacks the argument will be the correct answer. When the correct answer is negated, the answer must weaken the argument.
Solving Parallel Reasoning questions in the order stated → 1. An indication that the answer choices should be accepted as true 2. Keywords that indicate your task is to resolve the problem Action: Problem: Resolve Paradox Explain Contradiction Reconcile Discrepancy Conflict Puzzle *Attempt to prephrase Correct answer must show how both sides can coexist.
Internal contradiction AKA self contradiction → occurs when an author makes conflicting statements. \n
Primary Objective #8 → Separate the answer choices into "contenders" and "loser". After completing this process, review the contenders and decide which answer correct.
Things to remember in regards to WEAKEN questions → 1. Stimulus will contain an argument. Must isolate and identify and assess the premises and the conclusion. 2. Focus on the conclusion. Almost all correct Weaken answers impact the conclusion. 3. The info in the stimulus is suspect. There are often reasoning errors present and you must read the argument very carefully. 4. Weaken questions often yield strong prephrases. Be sure to consider the range of possible answers before looking at the answers. 5. The answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" info. Weaken answer choices can bring into consideration info outside of or tangential to the stimulus. CANNOT dismiss answers on grounds of new info.