5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- 2 speaker questions
- Counter Premise Indicators
- Primary Objective #6
- Internal contradiction AKA self contradiction
- Necessary Condition
- a Prephrase: after reading the question stem, take a moment to mentally formulate your answer to the question stem.
- b an event or circumstance whose occurrence is required in order for a sufficient condition to occur.
- c occurs when an author makes conflicting statements. \n
- d introduce something that actually contains an idea that is counter to the argument. By raising opposition, the author can minimize the damage that would be done by the objection if it were raised elsewhere. but yet, however, on the other hand, admittedly, in contrast, although, even though, still, whereas, in spite of, despite, after all.
- e Usually have one male and one female. The female uses sound reasoning and the male uses flawed reasoning or makes a mistake. This is not always true, but more often than not.\n
5 Multiple choice questions
- Stimulus (accepted) --/-> answer choices (affected or determined) cannot be true.
- Stimulus (affected or determined) ---> answer choices (accepted) AKA: Help Family assumption, justify the conclusion, strengthen/support, resolve the paradox.
- 1. No conclusion. When a stimulus does not have a conclusion and contains a paradox, expect a Resolve question 2. Language of contradiction exp: but, however, yet, although, paradoxically, surprisingly.
- 1. ethical versus factual situations - when the stimulus addresses something ethical, a factual answer would be incorrect and vice versa 2. dual agreement or dual disagreement - often incorrect answer choices will supply statements that both speakers will agree with or that both speakers disagree with 3. the view of one speaker is unknown - test makers create an answer where the view of only one of the speakers in known. Use the Agree/Disagree Test - the correct answer must produce responses where one speaker would say "I agree, the statement is correct" and the other would disagree. If the 2 responses are not produced the answer is incorrect.\n
- Always read each of the five answer choices. If an answer choice appears somewhat attractive, interesting or even confusing, keep it as a contender and move to the next answer.
5 True/False questions
the unless equation (conditional reasoning) → 1. The sufficient condition does not make the necessary condition occur. That is, the sufficient condition does not actively cause the necessary condition to happen. 2. Temporally speaking, either condition can occur first, or the two conditions can occur at the same time. 3. The conditional statement reflected by the author does not have to reflect reality.
3 incorrect answer traps (weaken) → the author assumes as true what is supposed to be proved. exp: "this essay is the best because it is better than all the others"\n
Typical assumption question stems → First Family The correct answer choice will be a rephrasing of the main conclusion of the argument. The conclusion is either in the middle or beginning of the stimulus. The correct answer choice must not only be true it also must summarize the author's main point.
Central assumption of causal conclusions → Whenever you identify a causal relationship in the conclusion of an LSAT problem, immediately prepare to either weaken or strengthen the argument. Tasks for Weaken questions...must always identify a causal conclusion. Then ask if there relationship must be as stated by the author or if another explanation can be found? A. Find alternate cause for the stated effect B. Show that even the cause occurs, the effect does not occur C. Show that although the effect occurs, the cause did not occur D. Show that the stated relationship is reversed E. Show that a statistical problem exists with the data used to make the causal statement.
General lack of relevant evidence for the conclusion → authors misuses info to such a degree that they fail to provide any info to support their conclusion or they provide info that is irrelevant to their conclusion. \n