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70 terms

ch. 11 vocab

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urology
medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the urinary system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat urinary diseases
urinary system
body system that includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. function= produce and excrete urine
calix
area at the tip of each renal pyramid. Minor calices take urine to the major calices
flank
area of the bacl (between the ribs and hip bone) that overlies the kidneys
kidney
organ of the urinary system that produces urine. it is in the retroperitoneal space, an area behind the peritoneum of the abdomen
renal pelvis
large, funnel-shaped cavity within each kidney that collects urine from the major calices and then narrows to become the ureter
renal pyramid
triangular-shaped areas of tissue in the medulla of the kidney
glomerulus
network of intertwining capillaries within the glomerular capsule in the nephron. Filtration takes place here.
nephron
microscopic functional unit of the kidney
nephron loop
tubule of the nephron that is u-shaped. Begins at the proximal convoluted tubule and ends at the distal convoluted tubule. Reabsorption takes place here.
proximal convoluted tubule
tubule of the nephron that begins at the glomerular capsule and ends at the nephron loop. Reabsorption takes place here.
ureter
tube that carries urine from the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder
bladder
expandable resevoir for storing urine
urethra
tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In women, it is a short tube but, in men, it goes through the prostate gland and down the length of the penis
creatine
waste product from muscle contractions. It is removed from the blood by the kidneys
filtration
process in which water, some nutritional substances, and wastes in the blood are all pushed through pores in the capillaries of the glomerulus. The resulting fluid is filtrate
reabsorption
process by which water and nutritional substances in the filtrate move out of the tubule and return to the blood in a nearby capillary
urea
waste product from protein metabolism. It is removed from the blood by the kidneys
urination
the process of expelling urine from the body. It is also known as voiding, mictuition, or passing water
glomerulonephritis
complication that develops following an acute infection with strptococcal bacteria or with viruses. The kidney becomes inflamed and urine production decreases
hydronephrosis
enlargement of the kidney due to the pressure from urine that is backed up in the ureter because of an obstructing stone or stricture
nephrolithiasis
kidney stone or calculus formation in the urinary system
lithogenisis
is the process of forming stones
nephropathy
general word for any disease of the kidney
nephroptosis
abnormally low position of a kidney
polycystic kidney disease
hereditary disease characterized by cysts in the kidney that eventually destroy the nephrons, causing kidney failure
pyelonephritis
inflammation and infection of the pelves of the kidneys
End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
final, irreversible stage of chronic renal failure in which there is little or no remaining kidney function. Treat end-stage reanl failure with dialysis
cystitis
inflammation or infection of the bladder
vesicovaginal fistula
formation of an abnormal passageway connecting the bladder to the vagina
urethritis
inflammation or infection of the urethra
albuminuria
presence of albumin in the urine
anuria
absence of urine production by the kidneys because of acute or chronic renal failure.
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria
difficult or painful urination
glycosuria
glucose in the urine
hematuria
blood in the urine
hypokalemia
a decreased amount of potassium in the blood
incontinence
inability to voluntarily keep urine in the bladder
oliguria
decreased production of urine due to kidney failure
polyuria
excessive production of urine due to diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus
pyuria
WBCs in the urine, indicating a UTI
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
general category of an infection anywhere in the urinary tract.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
measures the amount of urea. Used to monitor kidney function
creatinine
measures the amount of creatine. Used to monitor kidney function
Culture & Sensitivity (C&S)
puts urine onto culture medium in a petri dish to identify the cause of a UTI
urinalysis (UA)
describes the characteistics of the urine and detects substances in it
glucose
not normally found in urine
ketones
not normally found in urine. produced when the body cannot use (or does not have enough) glucose and instead metabolizes fat
specific gravity (SG)
measurement of the concentration of the urine as compared to that of water
intravenous pyelography (IVP)
procedure that uses x-ray s and radiopaque contrast dye kidney, ureters, bladder (KUB) x-ray - procedure that uses an x-ray of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder done without contrast dye
catheterization
procedure in which a catheter (flexible tube) is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder to drain the urine
foley catheter
indwelling tube that drains urine continuously
dialysis
procedure to remove waste products from the blood of a patient in renal failure
hemodialysis
uses a fistula or a shunt in the patient's arm
peritoneal dialysis
uses a permanent catheter inserted through the abdominal wall
intake & output
nursing procedure that documents the total amount of fluid intake and the total amount of fluid output
cystectomy
procedure to remove the bladder because of bladder cancer
cystoscopy
procedure that uses a rigid or flexible cytoscope inserted through the urethra in order to examine the bladder
lithotripsy
procedure that uses sound waves to break up a kindney stone
nephrectomy
surgical procedure to remove a diseased or cancerous kidney
nephrolithotomy
procedure in which a small incision is made in the skin and an endoscope is inserted in a percutaneous approach into the kidney to remove a kidney stone embedded in the renal pelvis or calices
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
C&S
culture and sensitivity
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
I&O
intake and output
IVP
intravenous pyelography
KUB
kidney, ureters, bladder
UA
urinalysis
UTI
urinary tract infection