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a formal agreement-esp one btwn the pope and a govt, dealing w the control of Church affairs. Church=no power in govt-in making policy
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade btwn Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Gr Britain's economy. people ignored it.
a conflict, lasting from1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon's French troops out of Spain.
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that make surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
the belief that people should be loyal to their nation-that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history-rather than to a king or empire
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain. held highest positions in society and could hold political office
in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents. could hole military office
Simon de Bolivar
Venezuelan creole-wealthy, educated. called "liberator" and "George Washington of L. America." brilliant general. Venezuela officially declared independence from Spain in 1821. liberated Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador
Jose de San Martin
Argentinian. creole, educated. lead armies to free Argentina in 1816 and Chile in 1817 from Spain
Count Camillo di Cavour
leader of Sardinian city-state. large army...w help of French in 1859, pushed austrians out of power in N. Italy, unified it and called it Kingdom of Sardinia
in South Italy-raised army of 100,000 (called Red Shirts) and won Sicily. moved onto Southern part of Italian peninsula and captured those city states. in 1861-most of Italy was unified due to he and the other guy. only the Papal States would be annexed later in 1870
Otto von Bismarck
prime minister of Prussian empire. goal was to create a unified Germany. did this through three wars
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