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Music Romantic Era
Terms in this set (22)
Musical nationalism was expressed when romantic composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity, using the folksongs, dances, legends, and history of their homelands.
Fascination with national identity also led composers to draw on colorful materials from foreign lands, a trend known as musical exoticism.
Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene.
The nonmusical element is usually specified by a title or by explanatory comments called a program.
Colorful harmony. There was more prominent exploitation of chromatic harmony, which uses chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scales.
ff - ffff / pp - pppp
The classical extremes of "ff" didn´t meet the needs of romantics, who sometimes demanded "ffff" or "pppp"
To intensify the expression of the music, romantic performers made use of rubato, the slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo.
When a melody returns in a later movement or or section of a romantic work, its character may be transformed by changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm - a technique known as thematic transformation
One of the most distinctive forms in romantic music is the art song, a composition for solo voice and piano. Here, the accompaniment is an integral part of the composer´s concept, and it serves as an interpretive partner to the voice.
The mood is often set by a brief piano introduction and summed up at the end by a piano section called a postlude.
Romantic art songs are sometimes grouped in a set, or song cycle.
A nocturne, or a night piece, is a slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano.
The polonaise, a piece in triple meter, originated as a stately processional dance for the Polish nobility.
Symphonic Poem/Tone Poem
Breaking away from classical sonata form and the standard four movement symphony, Liszt created the symphonic poem, or tone poem, a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on literary or pictorial ideas.
The forms used for program music are similar to those used for nonprogram music, or absolute music. A programmatic work can be heard simply as an example of rondo, fugue, sonata form, or theme and variations.
A program symphony is a composition in several movements - as its name implies, a symphony with a program.
A concert overture has one movement, usually in sonata form.
is music to be performed before and during a play
A single melody, which Berlioz called idée fixe, or fixed idea, is used to present the beloved. When introduced in the first movement - Reveries, Passions - it sounds, in Berlioz´s description, "passionate but at the same time noble and shy."
Pentatonic (five note) Scales
Dvorák wrote his New World Symphony, Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, during his first year in the United States. One of the best-known of all symphonies, it glorifies the American and the Czech folk spirit. Its popular character grows out of Dvorák´s use of syncopations, pentatonic (five note) scales, and modal scales often found in folk music.
A leitmotif is a short musical idea associated with a person, an object, or thought in the drama.
An étude is a study piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties.
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