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Terms, People, and events for chapter 22

potato famine

This was the famine that occurred in Ireland that killed of thousands of people because the main potato crop could not grow because of bad soil that year.

Viscount Castlereagh

British prime minister; subsidized the allies to win support against Napoleon; Treaty of Chaumont.

Frederick William III

king of Prussia who became involved in the Napoleonic Wars (1770-1840).

Holy Alliance

a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna.


an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard.


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it.


a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

German poet and novelist and dramatist who lived in Weimar (1749-1832).


a political theory advocating state ownership of industry.

Charles Fiourier

French sociologist and reformer who hoped to achieve universal harmony by reorganizing society (1772-1837).

July Monarchy

Period in France (1830-1848) where the bourgeoisie class was dominant and King Louis-Philippe was at the head of a constitutional monarchy. The monarchy eventually became too rigid and unwilling to change and was overthrown.

rotten boroughs

Rural town in England that sent members to Parliament despite having few or no voters.


a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages.

Louis Blanc

This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully.

Louis Cavaignac

was a French general who crushed a popular rebellion in Paris during the June Days in 1848.

Irish Great Hunger


Congress of Vienna

conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time.

Alexander I

the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825).

German Confederation

it was created to replace the Holy Roman Empire, it consisted of 39 states under Austrian control.

"social question"

Issues relating to workers and women in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.

Jeremy Bentham

Creator of Utilitarianism. Advocates "the greatest happiness for the greatest number."

Giuseppe Mazzini

Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872).

Germanine de Stael


Carlsbad decrees

1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.

Henri de Saint-Simon

Utopian socialist who wanted a society led by intellectuals providing for the welfare of the lowest classes.

Peterloo Massacre

Manchester mass meeting demanding Parliamentary reform that erupted into violence.

Louis Philippe

King of France following Charles X. Abdicated the throne against threat of republican revolution (smelled his popularity was diminishing).

Great Reform Bill of 1832

An extension of the right to vote in England to men of the middle class that resulted in a 50 percent increase in those eligible to vote.

Second Republic

restore order, new constitution, unicameral leg., univ. male suffrage, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte.

Luxembourg Commission

worker-employer parliament that accomplished little other than deflecting workers' attention away from the problems of the Provisional Government.

Frankfurt parliament

Unsuccessful attempt to unify Germany in 1848. It intended to write a moderately liberal constitution for a unified Germany, but alienated conservatives, workers and liberals.


the principles of a body of 19th century English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people.

Klemens von Metternich

This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression.

Lajos Kossuth

This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution.

Quadruple Alliance

This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era.

Queen Victoria

queen of Great Britain and Ireland and empress of India from 1837 to 1901 (1819-1901).


idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.

Georg Friedrich List

• Economist who formulated a statement of economic nationalism to counter the liberal doctrines of David Ricardo
• Argued that free trade worked only for the wealthy and powerful
• Advocated a program of protective tariffs for developing German industries
• Perceived British free trade as merely economic imperialism in disguise
• Was a nationalist who didn't whole heartedly embrace liberal economic doctrines

humiliation of Olmutz

(1850) Prussian ministers signed an agreement with their Austrian counterparts; Prussia was forced to accept Austrian dominance.


a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes.

Pierre Joseph Proudhon

French socialist who argued that property is theft (1809-1865).

Charles X

succeeded his brother Louis XVIII. His desire to restore France to a Pre-1789 world led to the Revolution of 1830 and the ascent of Louis Philippe.

Young Italy

(1830) secret society, goal was a free and united Italy, founded by Mazzini.

People's Charter

Draft of Reform Bill which called for universal suffrage, payment of members of Parliament an dannual elections; six main points.

Alphonse de Lamartine

He was the poet who led the liberal opposition in France and organized a provisional government.

national workshops

This was the group that gave work to the unemployed.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

French foreign minister; infamous because of his requested bribe during the XYZ affair, but instrumental in settling the details of the Louisiana Purchase.

The Communist Manifesto

The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.

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