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special senses: hearing and equilbrium

Was the auditory acuity measurment made? yes
Was it the same or different for both ears?

different (answers for this one can vary)

What factors might account for a difference in the acuity of the 2 ears?

ear wax, middle / outer ear infection, cochlear nerve damage, impairment of conduction, nerve damage

In the sound localization, in which position was the sound least easily located?

when exactly in the mid line of the head and out of vision

How can this be explained?

its the furthest point for sound waves to travel around the head and stimulate the tympanic membrane (ear drum)

In the experiment for frequency range, which tuning fork was the most difficult to hear? ____ What conclusion can you draw?

highest pitch
high frequency sounds are no as easily heard. Hearing acuity declines with age. With receptors for the high frequency sounds being lost first (maybe a little arthritis in the synovial joint between the ossicles)

When the tuning fork handle was pressed to your forehead during the Weber test, where did the sound seen to originate?

from both ears / within the head

How do sound waves reach the cochlea when conduction deafness is present?

by vibration through the bones of the skull

Can result from the fusion of the ossicles

conduction deafness

Can result from a lesion on the cochlear nerve

sensorineural (central) deafness

sound heard in one ear but not in the other during bone and air conduction

sensorineural (central) deafness

can result from otitis media

conduction deafness and sensorineural (central) deafness

can result from impacted cerumen or a perforated tympanic membrane

conduction deafness

can result from a blood clot in the auditory cortex

sensorineural (central) deafness

The Rhine test evaluates an individuals ability to hear sounds conducted by air or bone. Is sound conduction through air or bone more indicative of normal hearing?

sound conduction through air

Define nystagmus

the involuntary rolling of the eyes in any direction or the trailing of the eyes slowly in one direction followed by their rapid movement in the opposite direction. It is normal during and after rotation; abnormal otherwise

Define vertigo

sensation of dizziness and rotational movement when such movement is not occurring (sensed at the semi circular canals)

The Barany test investigated the effect that "rotatory acceleration" had on the semicircular canals. Explain why the subject still had the sensation of rotation immediately after being stopped.

the fluids in the inner ears (semi circular canals had not yet stopped moving)

What is the usual reason for conducting the Romberg test?

to determine if proprioceptive impulses are being transmitted up the spinal cord to the brain properly

Was the degree of sway during the Romberg test greater with the eyes open or closed? ____ Why?

visual input was lacking

Normal balance, or equilibrium, depends on input from a number of sensory receptors throughout the body. Name 3 of them.

1 proprioceptors of the muscles and tendons (mostly of the trunk) 2 vestibular apparatus (vestibule and semicirular canals ) of the ears and 3 the retina of the eye

the external ear parts include

pinna or auricle
external auditory canal

The middle ear includes the

tympanic membrane (eardrum)
tympanic cavity
eustachian tube/ auditory tube/ pharngotympanic tube

The inner ear includes

semicircular canals
round window
oval window
vestibulocochlear nerve

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