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period in which in which this was carried by fleas on Asian Black rats brought to Europe on ships returning from Asia

Bubonic Plague

some causes for the spread of the Black Plague

overcrowded seasons, Poor sanitation, widespread malnutrition, poor hygiene led to loss of 1/3 of the population

Results of the black plague

economy in towns suffered greatly,high pay of workers,literature and art reflect pessimism

cause of the Hundred Years War

English Crown lay claim to the Duchy of Aquitaine in France and the French king confiscated that territory from English control

Joan of Arc

in 1429 led the french army to victory at Orleans during the crucual stage of war helped strengthen government later burned to the stake by the English

revolt that led to the end of serfdom in England largest revolt

English Peasant Revolt 1381

*middle ages characterized by religious unity


an early critic of the church who believed the church should only follow scripture followers called Lollards

John Wycliff

led a nationalist movement in Bohemia and later burned to stake, followers called Hussites

John Hus

1305 a struggle between the Pope and the French King led to the election of a French Pope who set up his leadership in Avignon, France *Rome's economy damaged

Babylonian Captivity

occured in 1377 when election of two popes, one in Rome and one on France, neither who recognized each other *hurt church prestige

The Great Schism

solved the Great Schism

Conciliar Movement

Byzantine empire most dominent power in Europe in SE empire for thousand years intil this capital city was taken by the Ottoman Empire


marriage for men mid 20's and women 16-18, divorice unheard of, economic reasons best for marriage

social standards for Middle Ages

became the cornerstone of late-mideval philosophy

Scholasticism, Middle Ages

Renaissance occurred first in

Italy 1300-1600

characteristics of the Renaissance Time Period

-applied exclusicely for upper classes
-little impact on common people
-Jacob Burkhardt said it was exact contrast with Middle Ages
-caused Italy to become more urban

nothern italian cities who developed international trade

Genoa, Venice, Milan

rule of merchant aristocracies, controlled much of Italy *fascade of Republican Government


one man rules and then hands down the right to rule to his son


common people


military leaders who controlled armies hired by cities for military purposes


contract between merchant and "merchant advebturer" who agreed to take goods to distant locations and return with the proceeds


allied with other families in Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic

Cosimo de Medici

significant patron of the arts nicknamed "the Magnificent"

Lorenzo de Medici

ruled Duchy of Milan, major enemy of Venice and Florence

Sforza family

created a relative 40-year period of peace in Northern Italy

Peace of Lodi

became the unofficial leader of France between 1494 and 1498 creater a theocracy, later burned to the stake

Girolamo Savonarola

wrote the Prince 1513 believed that the ends justifies the means, stated that for rulers "its better to be feared, than loved", rulers should behave like a lion and a fox

Niccolo Machiavelli

theory in revival of antiquity, strong belief in indivisualism and gresat potential of Human beings


idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs

Civic Humanism

"father of Humanism", considered the first modern writer


Decameron his most famous work of Greek and Roman mythology


one of the most influencial humanist philosophers of the 15th century, founded the platonic academy at behest of Cosimo de Medici

Marsilio Ficino

wrote Oration on the dignity of Man believed humans were created by God and therefore given tremendous potential for greatness and even union with God if they desired it

Pico della Mirandola

wrote book of the courtier, specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman, describer ideal renaissance man

Baldassare Castiglione

invented the moveable type and the first printing press

Johann Gutenburg

leader of Renaissance art especially in the quattrocento


massive patronage mainly came from

wealthy-merchant families ex. Medicis

became the center of Renaissance art cinquecento


most notorious of Renaissance pope, spent huge sums on patronage

Pope Alexander VI

use of light and dark colors to create an illusion of depth


considered perhaps the first Renaissance painter


created the Il Duomo was the largest dome in Europe at time of his construction

Fillipo Brunelleschi

sculpture artist first to create a nude statue, naturalism


painted ceiling of sistine chapel


reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity, and realistic use of color


emphasis on early church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the church

Christian Humanism

most famous of all northern humanists, wrote Praise of Folly


prime example of a civil humanist, he rose to the highest government position, wrote Utopia

Thomas More

wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel which satrized the French society

Francois Rabelais

doubt that knowlege could be obtained


signigicant in patronizing the art of the Northern Renaissance in Germany

Fugger Family

During the Renaissance era women

-enjoyed access to education
-lost some status became ornaments
-influenced to please the man
- sexual double standard *women chaste, men sow their wild oats

perhaps Europes first feminist, well educated wrote the City of Ladies which defends womens intellectual capabilities

Christine de Pisan

first lady of the renaissance, set an example for women to break away from their traditional ornament roles, founded a school for young women

Isabella d' Este

perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-renaissance era, baroque painter

Artemesia Gentileschi

European family pattern during this time was

nuclear families depending on economic considerations, dowries, increased infancide and abandonment, population increase

important female rulers

1.Caterina Sforza
2.Isabella I-unified spain with her husband
3.Mary Tudor
4. Elizabeth I- ruled England
5.Catherine de Medicis

expressed that rulers should be wise and courageous as a lion and cunning as a fox, considered the first book of political science, raison d' etat (reason of state)

Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince

first gained fame as a diplomat but most famous for his book The Book of the Courtier, a how-to manual on winning fame and influence among the rich and powerful

Baldassar Castiglione

youngest of the great masters, made the school of athens, talented artist rival of Michaelangelo


wrote works advocating equality of oppurtutnity for women

Laura Cereta

practice became a major role in politics an example of this was the Peace of Lodi signed which maitained peace for 40 years

Balance of Power politics

preached against secular focus on art and pagan philosophy, eventually taking over the Florence before being burned at the stake


military dictatorship in Milan for centuries


known as the warrior pope, sponsered sistine chapel

Julius II

city state nicknamed the "serene republic" for its stability throughout the era


leader of the venetian goverment chosen by the great council and senate


used strategies of centralization

1. taxation
2. taming the aristocracy
3.codifying laws and creating courts
4.controlling warefare
5.early bureaucracy and officials
6. religious control

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