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Renaissance & Middle Ages

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period in which in which this was carried by fleas on Asian Black rats brought to Europe on ships returning from Asia
Bubonic Plague
some causes for the spread of the Black Plague
overcrowded seasons, Poor sanitation, widespread malnutrition, poor hygiene led to loss of 1/3 of the population
Results of the black plague
economy in towns suffered greatly,high pay of workers,literature and art reflect pessimism
cause of the Hundred Years War
English Crown lay claim to the Duchy of Aquitaine in France and the French king confiscated that territory from English control
Joan of Arc
in 1429 led the french army to victory at Orleans during the crucual stage of war helped strengthen government later burned to the stake by the English
revolt that led to the end of serfdom in England largest revolt
English Peasant Revolt 1381
*middle ages characterized by religious unity
...
an early critic of the church who believed the church should only follow scripture followers called Lollards
John Wycliff
led a nationalist movement in Bohemia and later burned to stake, followers called Hussites
John Hus
1305 a struggle between the Pope and the French King led to the election of a French Pope who set up his leadership in Avignon, France *Rome's economy damaged
Babylonian Captivity
occured in 1377 when election of two popes, one in Rome and one on France, neither who recognized each other *hurt church prestige
The Great Schism
solved the Great Schism
Conciliar Movement
Byzantine empire most dominent power in Europe in SE empire for thousand years intil this capital city was taken by the Ottoman Empire
Constinople
marriage for men mid 20's and women 16-18, divorice unheard of, economic reasons best for marriage
social standards for Middle Ages
became the cornerstone of late-mideval philosophy
Scholasticism, Middle Ages
Renaissance occurred first in
Italy 1300-1600
characteristics of the Renaissance Time Period
-applied exclusicely for upper classes
-little impact on common people
-Jacob Burkhardt said it was exact contrast with Middle Ages
-caused Italy to become more urban
nothern italian cities who developed international trade
Genoa, Venice, Milan
rule of merchant aristocracies, controlled much of Italy *fascade of Republican Government
oligarcies
one man rules and then hands down the right to rule to his son
signori
common people
populo
military leaders who controlled armies hired by cities for military purposes
condottieri
contract between merchant and "merchant advebturer" who agreed to take goods to distant locations and return with the proceeds
commenda
allied with other families in Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic
Cosimo de Medici
significant patron of the arts nicknamed "the Magnificent"
Lorenzo de Medici
ruled Duchy of Milan, major enemy of Venice and Florence
Sforza family
created a relative 40-year period of peace in Northern Italy
Peace of Lodi
became the unofficial leader of France between 1494 and 1498 creater a theocracy, later burned to the stake
Girolamo Savonarola
wrote the Prince 1513 believed that the ends justifies the means, stated that for rulers "its better to be feared, than loved", rulers should behave like a lion and a fox
Niccolo Machiavelli
theory in revival of antiquity, strong belief in indivisualism and gresat potential of Human beings
Humanism
idea that education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs
Civic Humanism
"father of Humanism", considered the first modern writer
Petrarch
Decameron his most famous work of Greek and Roman mythology
Boccacio
one of the most influencial humanist philosophers of the 15th century, founded the platonic academy at behest of Cosimo de Medici
Marsilio Ficino
wrote Oration on the dignity of Man believed humans were created by God and therefore given tremendous potential for greatness and even union with God if they desired it
Pico della Mirandola
wrote book of the courtier, specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman, describer ideal renaissance man
Baldassare Castiglione
invented the moveable type and the first printing press
Johann Gutenburg
leader of Renaissance art especially in the quattrocento
florence
massive patronage mainly came from
wealthy-merchant families ex. Medicis
became the center of Renaissance art cinquecento
Rome
most notorious of Renaissance pope, spent huge sums on patronage
Pope Alexander VI
use of light and dark colors to create an illusion of depth
chiaroscuro
considered perhaps the first Renaissance painter
Giotto
created the Il Duomo was the largest dome in Europe at time of his construction
Fillipo Brunelleschi
sculpture artist first to create a nude statue, naturalism
Donatello
painted ceiling of sistine chapel
Michelangelo
reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, symmetry, simplicity, and realistic use of color
Mannerism
emphasis on early church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the church
Christian Humanism
most famous of all northern humanists, wrote Praise of Folly
Erasmus
prime example of a civil humanist, he rose to the highest government position, wrote Utopia
Thomas More
wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel which satrized the French society
Francois Rabelais
doubt that knowlege could be obtained
skepticism
signigicant in patronizing the art of the Northern Renaissance in Germany
Fugger Family
During the Renaissance era women
-enjoyed access to education
-lost some status became ornaments
-influenced to please the man
- sexual double standard *women chaste, men sow their wild oats
perhaps Europes first feminist, well educated wrote the City of Ladies which defends womens intellectual capabilities
Christine de Pisan
first lady of the renaissance, set an example for women to break away from their traditional ornament roles, founded a school for young women
Isabella d' Este
perhaps the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-renaissance era, baroque painter
Artemesia Gentileschi
European family pattern during this time was
nuclear families depending on economic considerations, dowries, increased infancide and abandonment, population increase
important female rulers
1.Caterina Sforza
2.Isabella I-unified spain with her husband
3.Mary Tudor
4. Elizabeth I- ruled England
5.Catherine de Medicis
expressed that rulers should be wise and courageous as a lion and cunning as a fox, considered the first book of political science, raison d' etat (reason of state)
Niccolo Machiavelli's The Prince
first gained fame as a diplomat but most famous for his book The Book of the Courtier, a how-to manual on winning fame and influence among the rich and powerful
Baldassar Castiglione
youngest of the great masters, made the school of athens, talented artist rival of Michaelangelo
Raphael
wrote works advocating equality of oppurtutnity for women
Laura Cereta
practice became a major role in politics an example of this was the Peace of Lodi signed which maitained peace for 40 years
Balance of Power politics
preached against secular focus on art and pagan philosophy, eventually taking over the Florence before being burned at the stake
Savernarola
military dictatorship in Milan for centuries
Visconti
known as the warrior pope, sponsered sistine chapel
Julius II
city state nicknamed the "serene republic" for its stability throughout the era
Venice
leader of the venetian goverment chosen by the great council and senate
doge
used strategies of centralization
1. taxation
2. taming the aristocracy
3.codifying laws and creating courts
4.controlling warefare
5.early bureaucracy and officials
6. religious control