Chapter 21

industrial revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
spinning jenny
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)
water frame
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
steam engine
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder
james watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
a jet engine containing its own propellant and driven by reaction propulsion
crystal palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
thomas malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
david ricardo
English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market (1772-1823)
william cockerill
Carried secret plans for building spinning machinery to Belgium, illegally from England.
tariff protection
A government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high tariffs on the cheaper goods imported from another country.
friedrich list
Friedrich List (1789-1746), a German journalist and thinker. He promoted government's greater role in industrialization on the continent. List thought that the growth of the modern industry was most important because manufacturing was the way to increase the well being of people and relieve poverty. List was a nationalist. He wrote "wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations, the more dangerous it is to remain behind." To promote industry was to defend the nation. The practical policies that List focused on in articles and in his influential National System of Political Economy (1841) were railroad building and the protective tariff. (738)
Prussian economic union, removed tariff barriers between German states, in step toward political unity
economic nationalism
emphasis on domestic control of the economy
class conciousness
in Karl Marx's view, a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and need for collective political action to bring about social change
These were the angry old cottage industry workers who lost their jobs and costumers to machines and as a result, they began to secretly destroy the machines
freidrich engles
"The Condition of the Working Classes in England" (1844): "charge the middle class with murder, robbery, other crimes..." --- MARXIST
robert owen
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
factory act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children between 9 and 13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14 and 18 to 12 hours-made no effort to regulate hours of work for children at home or in small businesses-children under 9 were to be enrolled by schools to be established by factory owners-broke pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers
seperate spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)
mines act of 1842
Significant regulation in coal mines in Britain. Forbade employment underground of women and girls and boys under 10.
Reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of Parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. This group supported a document called the People's Charter.