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221 terms

Test 2 A&P

STUDY
PLAY
An arteriovenous ___ is a route by which blood flows from an artery to a vein without passing through capillaries
Arteriovenous Anastomosis
The middle layer of a blood vessel is called the ___.
tunica media
. In ___ capillaries, there are numerous filtration pores through the endothelial cells.
fenestrated
The lowest arterial blood pressure observed during the cardiac cycle is called the ___ pressure.
diastolic
. The ability of a tissue to control its own blood supply is called ___.
autoregulation
The stretch receptors in the cardiovascular system are called ___.
baroreceptors
In the process of ___, an endothelial cell imbibes a fluid droplet by pinocytosis on one side and releases it by exocytosis on the other side.
transcytosis
The skeletal muscle pump assists blood flow in small, low-pressure arteries. True or False?
False
All capillaries reabsorb about the same amount of fluid as they release. True or false?
False
The only force favoring capillary reabsorption is the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood. True or False?
True
Perfusion of the digestive tract drops during heavy exercise. True or False?
True
Blood cannot get from an artery into a vein without passing through at least one capillary bed. True or False?
False
Distributing arteries are larger than resistance arteries. True or False?
True
Blood cannot flow from point A to point B in a vessel unless the pressure is higher at A than at B. True or False?
True
The inferior vena cava has one-way valves that ensure the upward flow of blood toward the heart. True or False?
False
Which term can be described as the route in which blood flows through two capillary beds in series before returning to the heart?
Portal system
. Which term describes a hormone that is a strong vasoconstrictor?
angiotensin II
Which term can be described as the small blood vessels that perfuse the larger blood vessels?
Vasa Vasorum
Which term can be described as the category that includes neurogenic and anaphylactic shock?
circulatory shock
Which term can be described as the function of blood viscosity, vessel length, and vessel radius?
peripheral resistance
Which term described the promotion of the upward flow of blood in the inferior vena cava?
thoracic pump
Veins are called ___ vessels because they can hold a large amount of blood.
A. capacitance
B. resistance
C. storage
D. compliance
E. hemodynamic
A. capacitance
Blood flow is directly proportional to

A. blood viscosity.
B. vessel length.
C. vessel radius.
D. erythrocyte count.
E. peripheral resistance.
C. vessel radius.
56. Blood flow equals the pressure difference (P) between two points divided by
A. arterial diameter.
B. osmotic pressure.
C. resistance.
D. hydrostatic pressure.
E. blood volume.
C. resistance
Peripheral resistance is directly proportional to
A. blood viscosity.
B. vessel diameter.
C. cardiac preload.
D. systolic contraction force.
E. pulse pressure.
A. blood viscosity.
. If a person's arterial blood pressure measures 130/85, the mean arterial blood pressure is
A. 85 mmHg.
B. 100 mmHg.
C. 107.5 mmHg.
D. 128.3 mmHg.
E. 130 mmHg.
B. 100 mmHg.
Blood flow will decrease if
A. vessel radius increases.
B. viscosity increases.
C. p increases.
D. pressure increases.
E. afterload increases.
B. viscosity increases.
The net filtration pressure of a blood capillary is the difference between
A. colloid osmotic pressure and oncotic pressure.
B. blood and interstitial hydrostatic pressures.
C. blood pressures at the arterial and venous ends.
D. net hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure.
E. interstitial pressure and oncotic pressure.
D. net hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure.
Blood solutes can pass through the walls of continuous capillaries by passing through either the endothelial cell or

A. the thoroughfare channels.
B. the intercellular clefts.
C. the filtration pores.
D. the sinusoids.
E. the fenestrations.
B. the intercellular clefts.
Identify the net filtration pressure in a capillary under the following conditions: interstitial hydrostatic pressure, -2 mmHg; colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of the tissue fluid, 6 mmHg; COP of the blood, 29 mmHg; blood hydrostatic pressure, 32 mmHg.
A. 1 mmHg
B. 5 mmHg
C. 8 mmHg
D. 11 mmHg
E. 65 mmHg
D. 11 mmHg
In autoregulation, all of the following chemicals tend to increase blood flow except
A. nitric oxide.
B. carbon dioxide.
C. thromboxane A2.
D. histamine.
E. lactic acid
C. thromboxane A2.
The common route for blood flow is heart ---> arteries ---> arterioles ---> capillaries ---> venules ---> veins ---> heart. There are exceptions to this route, notable portal systems and anastomoses. In a portal system blood flows from one _____ to another, while in the anastomoses blood flows from one _____ to another.

A. capillary bed; artery or vein
B. artery or vein; capillary bed
C. artery; vein
D. vein; artery
E. vein; capillary bed
A. capillary bed; artery or vein
The outer wall of an artery or vein is called the _____ and in large arteries and veins contains the _____.
A. tunica media; smooth muscle
B. tunica externa; vasa vasorum
C. tunica externa; valves
D. tunica intima; endothelium
E. tunica intima; basement membrane
B. tunica externa; vasa vasorum
You would expect to find the thickest tunica media in a

A. small artery.
B. small vein.
C. large artery.
D. large vein.
E. capillary.
C. large artery.
The renal vein has a larger diameter than the renal artery with the renal vein having a larger _____ but a smaller _____.

A. tunica externa; lumen
B. lumen; tunica media
C. tunica media; lumen
D. tunica intima; tunica media
E. lumen; tunica intima
B. lumen; tunica media
. A short vessel, which links to capillaries, and does not have a continuous tunica media but rather individual muscle cells spaced at short distances apart is a(n)

A. muscular artery.
B. arteriole.
C. precapillary sphincter.
D. metarteriole.
E. venule.
D. metarteriole.
Arteries like the aorta, pulmonary arteries, and common carotid arteries maintain pressure on blood during ventricular diastole and lessen the fluctuations in blood pressure. These are _____ arteries.
A. distributing
B. resistance
C. elastic
D. muscular
E. conducting
C. elastic
The major vessels that control the relative amounts of blood directed to the various tissues are
A. muscular arteries.
B. resistance arteries.
C. conducting arteries.
D. capillaries.
E. veins.
B. resistance arteries.
The most common capillary beds in the body are
A. continuous capillaries with tight junctions and intercellular clefts.
B. continuous capillaries with filtration pores that allow for rapid passage of small molecules.
C. fenestrated capillaries with tight junctions and intercellular clefts.
D. fenestrated capillaries with filtration pores that allow for rapid passage of small molecules.
E. fenestrated capillaries with gap junctions that allow for rapid passage of small molecules.
A. continuous capillaries with tight junctions and intercellular clefts.
The capillaries that form the blood-brain barrier in the brain resemble
A. continuous capillaries without fenestrations.
B. continuous capillaries without intercellular clefts.
C. fenestrated capillaries without fenestrations.
D. fenestrated capillaries without intercellular clefts.
E. fenestrated capillaries with intercellular clefts.
B. continuous capillaries without intercellular clefts.
Valves are found in
A. veins and lymphatic vessels.
B. veins.
C. veins and arteries.
D. arteries.
E. capillaries.
A. veins and lymphatic vessels.
. In the arterial blood pressure reading, for example in a young adult, the ratio is written 120/75. The 120 reading is in _____ units and refers to ______.


A. inches of water; peak arterial pressure during systole
B. millimeters of mercury; lowest arterial pressure during systole
C. milliliters of water; lowest arterial pressure during systole
D. millimeters of mercury; peak arterial pressure during systole
E. pounds of pressure; lowest arterial pressure during systole.
D. millimeters of mercury; peak arterial pressure during systole
. Hypertension, or high blood pressure is a chronic resting blood pressure higher than _____ mmHg systolic or ______ mmHg diastolic.
A. 200; 100
B. 140; 90
C. 170; 60
D. 140; 100
E. 200; 90
B. 140; 90
Suppose a vessel with a radius of 1 mm had a flow of 1 mm/sec. The vessel dilated to a radius of 4 mm. Its new flow rate would be _____ mm/sec.
A. 4
B. 16
C. 32
D. 64
E. 256
D. 64
You have been exercising strenuously and decided to sit down and rest. In response to the effects of exercising, the baroreceptors stimulate the _____ center and inhibit the ____ center.
A. cardioinhibitory; vasomotor
B. vasomotor; cardioacceleratory
C. cardioinhibitory; cardioacceleratory
D. cardioacceleratory; vasomotor
E. cardioacceleratory; cardioinhibitory
A. cardioinhibitory; vasomotor
Which one of the following hormones reduces blood pressure?
A. angiotensin II
B. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
C. aldosterone
D. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
E. renin
B. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
These two hormones are powerful vasoconstrictors: _____. Of these two hormones, ____ also stimulates an increase in heart rate.
A. NE and vasopressin; vasopressin
B. EP and angiotensin II; EP
C. NE and ANP; NE
D. EP and aldosterone; EP
E. EP and vasopressin; vasopressin
B. EP and angiotensin II; EP
Some water-soluble materials can cross the capillary in the kidney, small intestine, and many endocrine glands and either cross slowly or not at all in other areas of the body. These water-soluble materials most likely cross by
A. diffusing through the plasma membrane.
B. transcytosis.
C. diffusing through intercellular clefts.
D. diffusing through fenestrations.
E. exocytosis.
D. diffusing through fenestrations.
The highest pressure that moves substances out of a capillary is _____ pressure.
A. interstitial hydrostatic
B. blood hydrostatic
C. blood colloid osmotic pressure
D. interstitial fluid osmotic pressure
E. intracellular osmotic pressure
B. blood hydrostatic
The highest pressure that moves substances into a capillary is
A. blood hydrostatic pressure.
B. interstitial hydrostatic pressure.
C. blood colloid osmotic pressure.
D. interstitial fluid osmotic pressure.
E. intracellular osmotic pressure.
C. blood colloid osmotic pressure.
The most important force in venous flow is
A. the pressure gradient generated by the heart.
B. gravity.
C. the skeletal muscle pump.
D. the thoracic (respiratory) pump.
E. one way flow due to valves.
A. the pressure gradient generated by the heart.
A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause _____, and a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause _____.
A. syncope; cerebral edema
B. neurogenic shock; neurogenic shock
C. compensated shock; decompensated shock
D. syncope; neurogenic shock
E. neurogenic shock; syncope
A. syncope; cerebral edema
. The main chemical stimulus for cerebral autoregulation is changes in
A. K+.
B. H+ or CO2.
C. O2.
D. Na+.
E. Ca2+.
B. H+ or CO2.
what are Lipid soluble molecules? do they need the help of transport proteins? or expenditure of metabolic energy?
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide, they do not need the help of transport proteins and do not expend metabolic energy
what are non-lipid soluble molecules? how are they trans-located across capillary walls?
Proteins, exocytosis
What are water soluble solutes and how do they diffuse from the capillary?
Amino acids and sugar diffuse through fluid filled clefts or fenestrations
What is arterial blood pressure? Delta P
Delta P= 65;Pulsatile
systolic-diastolic=measure of stress on small arteries
MAP-Diastolic pressure + 1/3 of pulse pressure
What is Capillary blood pressure? Delta P
Delta P=17
Capillaries are fragile
highly permeable,nutrient exchange
What is Venous blood pressure? Delta P
Delta P= 17
What is Hemodynamics?
Distribution of blood within the cardiovascular system and distribution of cardiac output within different tissues
Classic circulatory route?
through one capillary
Portal system?
Two capillaries in a row
Arteriovenous anastamosis
Blood flows directly into vein (shunt)
Venous anastomosis
Alternate drainage, blockage is less serious
Arterial anastomosis
not common, more than one artery provides flow to an organ
nl not important for regulation but is pathological
n=pathological
l=Length
major player in turbulence
what is blood flow regulated by?
1-change in cardiac output
2- Modifying peripheral resistance
3-modifying blood pressure
What is the major purpose of blood flow?
Provide tissues with the appropriate amount of nutrients and remove toxic waste
3 types of mechanisms involved in Blood flow regulation?
1- Local control/autoregulation
2- Neural mechanisms
3-endocrine mechanisms
Local control/Autoregulation?
Occurs within a tissue and while cardiac output and Blood pressure are stable
*adjusts Peripheral resistance
Short-term- Vasoconstriction

Vasodialation occurs when- Low O2, High Co2, High potassium, too many H+ ions, Low nutrients

Vasoconstriction= decrease flow by constricting smooth muscle of arterial walls and spinctors- Endothelium, prostaglandins, thromboxines
Neural mechanisms
-ANS control C.O. and P.R.
Short term effect- Regulation of flow

Originates from cardiovascular center of medulla which has:
-Cardiac center
-Vasomotor center
Cardiovascular center
Cardiac center-Regulates C.O. thus Blood pressure
Vasomotor center- Regulates peripheral resistance to control flow. thus blood pressure

Composed of two subgroups of neurons
-vasoconstriction
-vasorelaxation- especially skeletal muscle
What controls the Vasomotor center?
Baroreceptors: Decrease in pressure stimulates cardioacceletory center and vasoconstriction
Increase in pressure inhibits cardioacceletory center and vasoconstriction center

Chemoreceptors
*sensitive to Co2 and acid mainly decrease in O2 and increase in Co2 stimulates cardioacceletory and vasoconstriction
Endocrine mechanisms "hormones"
-Epi and norepi
-ADH
-Angiotensin II
-Erythropoietin
-A.N.P
Epi and Norepi? ( short term)
Short term- Binds to alpha receptors and triggers vasoconstriction of non-vital tissues
-Binds to beta receptors and vasodialates vital tissues

Epi and Norepi increase C.O.
ADH?(short and long term)
Short term- Stimulates peripheral vasoconstriction in non-vital tissues

Long term- Stimulate water conservation by kidneys and increases blood volume and Blood pressure
Angiotensin II ( short and long term)
renin is released due to low renal B.P. Renin converts arculation angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. ACE coenzymes converts A-I to A-II

Short term- Powerful vasoconstriction to non-vital
-Positive Inotropic effect, increase C.O.
Long term-
-Stimulates release of ADH
-Stimulates Aldosterone
-Stimulates thirst
Erythropoietin
-released from kidney in blood pressure or O2 levels drop

Long term effect

increase RBC formation which increases blood volume and blood pressure
A.N.P
Short term
Long term
Short term- Weak vasodialator released from atrium due to stretch
Long term- Increases sodium loss
-reduces thirst
-Blocks release and action of ADH
Large Veins
Lower B.P. 10mmHg
thin walls/valves + High capacitance
valves aid skeletal muscle in upward blood flow

-Capacitance vessels contain 75% of total blood, veins of systemic circulation
Small veins
no valves
Venules
More porous than capillaries
Venus sinuses
thin walls, large lumens, no smooth muscle
types of capillaries
Continuous- Most common, have intercellular clefts

Fenestrated- Found in kindneys, small intestine, rapid absorption and filtration pores, still have clefts

Sinusoids- no longer continuous
Arterial system- four types of arteries
1- conducting/Elastic-Blood moves from A--->B, Balloon like
2- Distributing/muscular- blood to parts of body
3- Resistance or arterioles- Blood within specific organs
4- metarterioles- in capillary with precapillary sphinctors
Capillary exchange
Diffusion
-Requires a concentration gradient, and permeability
- small ions, water, glucose, amino acids
-works well only over short distances
Capillary exchange
transcytosis
-occurs in both directions
-minor mechanism
-used to move large molecules
-fatty acids
-albumin
-some hormones
Capillary exchange
filtration and reabsorption
-Allows movement of large amounts of fluid to be exchanged for dissolved nutrients

Due to
-Hydrostatic pressure
-Colloid osmotic pressure
Goal of cardiovascular regulation of flow?
1- alter flow at appropriate time
2- alter flow to appropriate organs
3- alter flow without drastically changing flow to vital organs
what is the systemic Delta P aka Blood pressure
90mmHg from aorta to right atrium
Vessel wall
Tunica interna- nonstick simple squamous endothelium, elastic recoil

Tunica media- smooth muscle, elastic innervated by ANS; allows contracting(vasomotion)

Tunica externa- loose connective tissue with vasa vasorum
Components of the lymphatic system
-Lymph- Fluid, little proteins
-lymphatic vessels- network that carries lymph from tissues to veins
-lymphocytes/phagocytes
- lymphoid tissue and organs found throughout the body
What are the main functions of the respiratory system?
-Provides for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between the blood and air
-helps control the PH of body fluids
-Lungs filter small blood clots from the blood stream and dissolve them, preventing clots from obstructing the more vital coronary,cerebral, and renal circulation
-carry out a step in the synthesis(A.C.E enzymes) of a vasoconstrictor called angiotensin II, which helps regulate blood pressure.
Henry's law
At the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air (assuming a constant temp)

ex-smell of chlorine near a swimming pool. if it's partial pressure is greater in the air, it diffuses into the water
Solubility of the gasses
Carbon dioxide is about 20 times as soluble as oxygen, and oxygen is about twice as soluble as nitrogen. Even though the pressure of Oxygen is much greater than Carbon dioxide across the respiratory membrane, equal amounts of the two gasses are exchanged because carbon dioxide is much more soluble and diffuses more rapidly
Ventilation-perfusion coupling
Gas exchange requires not only good ventilation of the alveoli but also good perfusion of their capillaries.Ventilation perfusion coupling refers to the physiological responses that match airflow to blood flow and vice versa. For example if a part of a lung were poorly ventilated because of tissue destruction or an airway obstruction, it would be pointless to direct much blood to that tissue. Poor ventilation leads to a low Partial pressure of oxygen in that region of the lung, this stimulates local vasoconstriction, rerouting the blood to better-ventilated areas of the lung, where it can pick up more oxygen
Boyle's law
A pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to it's volume(assuming a constant temp)

if you increase the volume the pressure decreases
if you decrease the volume the pressure increases

P1 x V1= V2 x P2

ex- (inhalation)P1=10 V1=10
(exhalation)P1=20 V2=5
Dalton's law
A total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of its individual gases
Pressure and airflow
Flow of a fluid is directly proportional to the pressure difference between two points(deltaP) and inversely proportional to resistance(R)
atmospheric(barometric) pressure
The weight of the air above us. at sea level, this averages 760mmHg
Intrapulmonary pressure
intrapulmonary pressure falls below the atmospheric pressure, then air tends to flow down its pressure gradient into the lungs. Conversely, if intrapulmonary pressure rises above atmospheric pressure, air flows out. Therefore, all we have to do to breathe is to cyclically raise and lower intrapulmonary pressure
Composition of air?
Air consists of about 79% Nitrogen and 21% oxygen
difference between the composition of air we inhale and the composition of air in the alveoli. what are the three influences
-it is humidified by contact with the mucous membranes, so it's PH2o is more than 10 times higher that that of inhaled air
-Freshly inspired air mixed with the residual air left from the previous respiratory cycle, so that its oxgygen is diluted and enriched with Carbon dioxide from the residual air.
-Alveolar air exchanges Oxygen and Carbon dioxide with the blood. Thus the Partial pressure of oxygen of alveolar air is about 65% that of inhaled air, and its Partial pressure of Carbon dioxide is more that 130 times higher
Muscles involved in respiration
Scalene, Pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, external intercostal muscles, sternoclydomastoid, diaphragm
Importance of surfactant
Importance of surfactant is especially apparent when it is lacking. Premature infants often have a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant and experience great difficulty breathing. The resulting infant respiratory distress syndrome can be treated by administering artificial surfactant
squamous type I alveolar cells
cover 95% of the alveolar surface area, allow for rapid gas diffusion between the air and blood
ex-
Great type II alveolar cells
Cover the other 5% of the alveolar surface, even though they cover less surface area, they considerably outnumber squamous Type I alveolar cells

Functions-
-Repair alveolar epithelium when the squamous cells are damaged
-Secrete pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of phospoholipids and protein that coats the alveoli and smallest bronchioles and prevent them from collapsing when one exhales. without surfactant alveolus would cling together like sheets of wet paper
Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
Most numerous of all cells in the lungs that wander lumens of the alveoli and connective tissue between them, they keep alveoli free of debris by phagocytizing dust particles that escape entrapment by mucus in the higher parts of the respiratory tract.
What is the Delta P in the Alveoli
100mmHg
Oxygen-Hemoglobin dissociation curve
-Not linear relationship due to cooperation
-as PO2 increases more O2 is bound to hemoglobin
-as PO2 drops O2 is released from hemoglobin
-blood leaving the lungs is 98% saturated
-at tissue (PO2=40) blood is 75% saturated
-at PO2 of 70mmHg hemoglobin is saturated
-can survive high altitude and cardiopulmonary disease
Factors that influence the curve and enhance oxygen unloading at the tissues
-increase acidity
Bohr effect
-increase temp
-increase level of CO2
Haldane effect
- 2,3-biphosphoglycerate(BPG)(intermediate in respiration)
Produced during anaerobic respiration
Oxygen transport
Oxygen binds to hemoglobin.
Oxygen binds to iron so 4O2 to 1 hem =100% saturated

After binding with O2, hemoglobin changes shape to further uptake, 1st oxygen is hardest to get on, after shape change the 2nd,3rd, and fourth go on easily ( positive feedback cycle)
Carbon Dioxide transport-3 ways
-Dissolved in plasma 7%
-bound to hemoglobin 23%
-as bicarbonate ion in plasma- 70%

-CO2 + H2O<--->H2CO3<--->H+HCO3
^ ^
Enzyme CAH (carbonicanhydrase)
External respiration
- 1st 7% of Co2 will go straight into alvioli, then Co2 will come off HB into plasma into alveoli as long as there is a Partial pressure then Co2 sitting in blood cell will leave and equation will work backward. The HCO3 will reenter cell by exchange of Cl-( outward CL shift in lungs) HCL and gets rest from HB then O2 enters plasma then vessel and bind to Hb and then we are 98.5% saturated, 1 1/2% O2 dissolved in plasma
What are the two intrinsic defense systems of the body that deal with infectious agents?
Nonspecific- also known as innate defense system, always ready and waiting at 100%

Specific- also known as adaptive defense systems, Immune system waiting at 20%
Nonspecific body defenses( surface membrane barriers)
-unbroken epithelial linings
-acidity
-skin,vagina,stomach
-lysozyme (works on gram +)
-mucous
-iron chelators (makes iron available for bacteria)
NonSpecific body defenses
Phagocytes
-Macrophages
-Microphages
-Neutrophils
-NK cells
Nonspecific cells
-Phagocytes
Phagocyte
-Macrophage-->kills by phagocytosis
-Microphage(neutrophil)-->phagocytosis
-deregulate to release( hypochlorite,superoxide ions)
also produces hydrogen peroxide and cause a killing zone that kills the good and bad
Nonspecific cells
*Eosinophiles
*NK cells
Eosinphiles
-Very common in mucus membrane
-kill by phagocytosis
-degranulated to release superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide

NK Cells
-destroy, bacteria, transplanted cells, and cells infected by virus or cancer
-release perforines and granzymes
granzymes disrupt enzyme systems and cause apoptosis
NK cells
NK cells attack human cells and your cells containing viruses. Really good at killing precancer cells
-attach to cell and make a hole. Local hormones are released (cytokines) and go through pores, go to heart of cell and activates suicide

Apoptosis= cell suicide
Non-specific defenses
antimicrobial proteins
aka complement
(arsenal)
30+ circulatory proteins that when activate
-split cells
-stimulate inflammation
-attracts phagocytes
-immune clearance
---> RBC carry Ab Ag complexes to macrophages, live in spleen, main way foreign antigen is cleared
Compliment system
---Splitting C3 into c3a +c3b
*classical pathway
require antibody:specific immunity
*bound antibody activates C1 (antibdy dependent)

Antigen-antibody complexes form on pathogen surface----->

reaction cascade compliment fixation----->

C3 dissociates to C3a+C3b
compliment system
*splitting C3 into C3a + C3b

*alternate pathway
*spontaneous breakdown of C3 to C3a+b
the products adhere to pathogenic cells.
when enough build up. activation of arsonal occurs(antibody independent)

C3 dissociates into fragments C3a+b
C3 binds to pathogen surfaces
reaction cascade and auto-catalytic effect then arsenal
complement system
*splitting C3 into C3 a + C3b

*Lectin pathway
*lectin pathway binds to microbial carbohydrase groups which trigger breakdown of c3 (antibody independent)

Lectin binds to carbohydrates on pathogen surface

Reaction cascade and arsonal
membrane attack complex
(cytolysis)
complement proteins form ring in plasma membrane of target cell and cause cytolysis

lipid inserts to membrane assembly ring of Ca and Cd rain out insides and cell swells and bursts
Nonspecific body defenses

Antimicrobial proteins
-interferons
Produced by own cells
-Virally infected cells
-macrophages
-lymphocytes

Effects
-attack NK cells
-stimulate macrophage activity
-trigger cells to make antiviral proteins
Nonspecific body defenses
antimicrobial proteins
-pyrogens
Exogenous pyrogens=surface
glycolipids of bacteria and viruses
-endogenous pyrogens= interleukins and interferions from leukocytes

*cause fever to promote wbc
*acts at hypothalamus to produde proteglandins, ez with triggers fever
-->stimulate liver and spleen to hoard up zinc and iron
inflammation
(non-specific)
-Triggers whenever tissues are injured
- purpose is to prevent spread, dispense of cellular debris and pathogens

Cardinal signs
-redness, swelling, heat, pain

-words ending with -itis denotes inflammation
Inflammation
Stage one
-vasodialation and increased permeability, this is due to inflammatory chemicals
Histamine, Kinins, prostoglandins, lymphocytes, mast cells

cause hyperemia (redness/swelling) and edema
Inflammation
Stage two
phagocyte migration and activation
margination: endothelial cells at injury site express selection(fish hooks that bind to phagocytes)
diapedsis; snagged phagocytes migrate through endothelial cells
-chemotaxis
-Neutrophils are quickest to responds
-machrophages and T-cells secrete colony-stimulating factor to develope lots of new cells (leukopoeisis)
Tissue cleanup
1. what are the primary agents of cleanup and when do they arrive?
Momocytes; arrive in 8-12 hours and become macrophages

-Edema, decreased venous flow, increased lymphatic flow that favors removal of bacteria and debris
Tissue repair
Blood platelets and endothelial cells in injured area secrete cytokine PDGF that stimulates fibroblasts to multiply and synthesize collagen(scars)

Facilitated by hyperemia that provides materials needed and heat that increases metabolism

-Fibrin clot may provide scaffold for repair
Mobilization of defenses
Leukocyte development
-Margination
-Selectins cause leukocytes to adhere to blood vessel walls
-Diapedesis(emigration) leukocytes squeeze between endothelial cells into tissue space
Immunity
(specific defense)
-forms of immunity
provided by the coordinated actions of T and B lymphocytes

A) innate immunity
B) Acquired immunity
-active acquired
-follows exposure to an antigen
-passive acquired
-transferred from another source
Forms of immunity
Cellular or cell mediated immunity
-T-lymphocytes
-directly kill abnormal cell by lysis
-indirect role by releasing chemicals that enhance
inflammation and attract/activate lymphocytes and macrophages

Humoral imminity
-B-lymphocytes and plasma cells
-defend against pathogen in fluids
Properties of immunity
Antigen specific
Systemic
memory
tolerance
-one virus/pathogen
-immunity spread through body
-childhood inoculation
-tolerance of own tissues
Target of immune system
Antigens (pathogens)
-any substance that can mobilize the immune system (foreign hopefully)

Substances that can be antigenic
-Proteins
-nucleic acids
-some lipids
-Some large polysaccharides(blood)
Haptens
-Haptens are small molecules that normally are not immunogenic
- they bind to a protein in the body and are now immunogenic

-Appears to be the basis for most allergies
Cell-mediated immunity
*key cell types involved
1. Cytotoxic T cells/CD8 T-cells
2. Suppressor T-cells (regulatory)/CD8 cells
3. Helper T-cells/CD4 cells
-each T cell can recognize only 1 antigen
4. Antigen presenters
-Macrophage cells and dendridic cells
Antigen presentation
Major histocompatibility complex

T and B cells only recognize antigens when they are bound to membrane bound glycoproteins called (MHC's)

*unique in everyone
Antigen presentation in all nucleated cells

Class 1/Class 2
All nucleated cells have class I MHC
Class I-made in golgi, as they migrate to plasma, they pick up small peptides(can be phagosome/virus) one then carry them to surface and present them

Class II
-found in phagocytes, connected to phagosome then we destroy bacteria. MHC takes it to surface and presents potential pathogen
Antigen recognition Step 1
CD is a marker that recognizes MHC only
-are marker receptors on surface of T-cells

-these T-cells via CD markers are constantly docking onto MHC proteins of cells

-All T-cells have CD3 marker
-Cytotoxic and suppressor have CD8
-helper T-cells have CD4
Antigen recognition Step 2
Each T-cell contains a receptor for one antigen (specific)

-antigen recognition occurs when an antigen presenting cell has a MHC complex containing an antigen that binds to the specific receptor for the same antigen on the T-cell
T-cell activation
T-Cell must bind the antigen being presented to its receptor and both a CD3 marker and a CD8 or CD4 marker must brind to the MHC protein on the antigen presenting cell before the immune response will continue

*called Costimulation---> multiple events need to occur
*serves as a safety
Role of activated CD8 T-cells
A.K.A suppressor and cytotoxic cells
-quickly produce large numbers of activated cytotoxic cells (mainly killers)
-memory T-cells slow metabolism and a small number
of supressor T-cells Wait and then take around 1 week to shut down
Activated Cytotoxic T-cells
Release
-Perforins=make hole in cell
-lymphotoxin=wrecks mitochondria/disrupts metabolism
-cytokines= interleukins, triggers apoptosis
-gama interferion=attacks and stimulates macrophages to killer status
Role of the CD4 helper T-Cells
*occurs at same time as CD8 cell activation and is similar
-docks to MHC II and sees what its holding, if it can recognize antigen, once activated, large numbers of helper cells occur and memory helper CD4 cells
Activated CD4(helper) T-cells
Secrete cytokines
-stimulate T cell division and maturation
-attract macrophages
-attact and stimulate NK cells
-Promote B cell division and plasma cell production leading to antibody production
-Stimulate B+T cells by helper T cell interleukins
Attack phase: role of helper T cells
*secrete interleukins which attack neutrophils, NK cells, and macrophages
-stimulates phagocytosis
-stimulates T and B cell mitosis and maturation

*coordinate humoral and cellular immunity
Humoral immune response
Requires activity of B cells
-each B cell can recognize only one antigen (specific)
Initiating the humoral immune response
B-cells sensitization
-specific antigen receptor on the b-cells bind to antigen and the complex bind to antigen and the complex is internalized
-antigen is next bound to class II, MHC proteins and returned to the surface
*cell is now sensitized
Initiating the humoral immune response
B cell activation
-sensitized B cell next encounters an activated helper (CD4) T cell which can recognize the antigen bound to the class II MHC on the sensitized B cell
-Helper T cell release cytokines that result in B cell activation
*T-cell hits with interleukin 2 to activate B cell
Activated B-Cells
-Divide to produce
*plasma cells
-secrete large numbers of antibodies that can bind to the same antigen that started the process
-memory B-cells
-responded to second exposure
antibody structure and antibody functions
* any antibody can recognize two pathogens but they need to be the same
antibody functions
*complement fixation--> make a hole in cell and kills it
*Neutralization
* agglutination---> clotting
*precipitation---> fall out of solution
*attack phagocytes
*opsonization
*stimulate inflammation
Humoral immunity recognition
1- antigen recognition: immuneocompetant B cells exposed to antigen. Antigen binds only to B cells with complementary receptors
2- antigen presentation: B cell internalizes antigen and displays processed epitope helper T cells to B cells and secretes interleukins
3- clonal selection: interleukin stimlates B cell to divide repeatedly and form a clone cell
Humoral immunity recognition
4-Differentiation: some cells of the clone become memory B cells. most differentiate into plasma cells
5-Atack: plasma cells synthesize and secrete antibody, antibody employs various means to render antigen harmless
The pressure created by the presence of large molecules like proteins trapped inside the capillary is.
osmotic pressure

hydrostatic pressure

blood pressure

filtration pressure
Osmotic pressure
Your body regulates resistance to blood flow by altering:
blood viscosity

blood vessel diameter

blood vessel length

cardiac output

blood volume
blood vessel diameter
Dietary salt intake is associated with high systemic blood pressure because salt:
stimulates secretion of aldosterone

inhibits secretion of angiotensin II

promotes vasodilation

promotes an increase in blood volume

promotes vasoconstriction
promotes an increase in blood volume
The most important factor in determining blood flow to a given tissue or organ is:
arterial pressure

vascular resistance

the pressure difference across the tissue or organ

venous pressure

none of the above
the pressure difference across the tissue or organ
.Capillary type in which the endothelial cells are discontinuous -
continuous capillaries

fenestrated capillaries

sinusoidal capillaries

a and b are correct

all of the above
sinusoidal capillaries
Blood pressure is equal to:
stoke volume times peripheral resistance

contractility times venous return

peripheral resistance times cardiac output

cardiac output times heart rate

all are correct
peripheral resistance times cardiac output
If the total cross-sectional area of a vascular bed increases, such as across a capillary bed, then blood flow velocity would:
increase

decrease

stay the same

decrease and then increase

none of the above
Decrease
.Blood flow is slowest in the...
elastic arteries

veins

capillaries

arterioles
Capillaries
Which will decrease the resistance of arteries of the skeletal muscle?
increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
Following a major hemorrhage, which of the following would rise?
A- epinephrine, angiotensin II, antidiuretic hormone, and total peripheral resistance

B- atrial natriuretic peptide, angiotensin II, antidiuretic hormone, and total peripheral resistance

C-epinephrine, angiotensin II, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide

D-epinephrine, atrial natriuretic peptide, antidiuretic hormone, and aldosterone
A- epinephrine, angiotensin II, antidiuretic hormone, and total peripheral resistance
In comparing the renal artery to the renal vein:
the lumen diameter of the vein is greater

the wall thickness of the vein is greater

the tunica media is thicker in the vein

the blood pressure is greater in the vein

the blood is more oxygenated in the vein
the lumen diameter of the vein is greater
If the vagus nerves were cut, the heart rate would:
remain unchanged

decrease

increase

alternatively speed-up and slow-down

none of the above
Increase
Factors involved in the local control or "autoregulation" of blood flow could include which of the following:

A-metabolic factors such as glucose and O2

B-myogenic or stretch related factors

C-new blood vessel addition

D-all of the above

E-none of the above
D-all of the above
Which of the following is true to the modified type of continuous capillary found in the brain?

A-they have larger then normal fenestrations

B-they have smaller then normal fenestrations

C-they contain sinus

D-they have no intercellular clefts

E-they have no pinocytotic vesicles
D- they have no intercellular clefts
Baroreceptors are located:
in the carotid sinuses (artery).

in the renal artery.

in the femoral artery.

in the thoracic (descending) aorta.

in the inferior vena cava just before it passes through the diaphragm
in the carotid sinuses (artery).
The dominant force at the arterial end of a capillary that serves to drive fluid out of the vessel is the:
atmospheric pressure

osmotic pressure

hydrostatic pressure

oncotic pressure

none of the above
Hydrostatic pressure
Capillary type that is made of cells which contain pores -
continuous capillaries

fenestrated capillaries

sinusoidal capillaries

a and b are correct

all of the above
Fenestrated
Which will increase the resistance of arteries of the gastrointestinal tract?

increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
.Oxygen delivery to exercising skeletal muscle increases because:
low PO2 triggers vasoconstriction in local blood vessels

low PO2 triggers sytemic vasoconstriction

norepinephrine triggers vasodilation in local blood vessels

hemoglobin affinity for O2 increases

blood flow rate increases as a result of the rising body temperature
norepinephrine triggers vasodilation in local blood vessels
A large and rapid loss of blood volume could lead to:
cardiogenic shock

hypovolemic shock

vascular shock

septic shock

none of the above
Hypovolemic shock
Which of the following will increase the flow of blood into the capillaries?
rising levels of metabolic wastes like CO2

vasodilatation of arteriole leading to the capillary

constriction of precapillary sphincter

both a and b

all are correct
both a and b
Which of the following is modified moment to moment to regulate blood pressure?
vessel length

blood viscosity

blood vessel diameter

a and b

all are correct
blood vessel diameter
Capillary type that is involved in filtration as in the kidney -
continuous capillaries

fenestrated capillaries

sinusoidal capillaries

a and b are correct

all of the above
Fenestrated
.The lymphatic system is necessary because:
osmotic pressure is higher than hydrostatic pressure in the capillary beds

hydrostatic pressure is higher than osmotic pressure in the capillary beds

capillaries do not allow water to diffuse into the blood

the presence of albumin reduces the inward diffusion of water into the blood

all blood must be filtered
hydrostatic pressure is higher than osmotic pressure in the capillary beds
Which of the following is the most important determinant of peripheral vascular resistance?
elastic arteries

muscular arteries

arterioles

metarterioles

none of the above
arterioles
Which of the following is modified moment to moment to regulate blood pressure?
vessel length

blood viscosity

blood vessel diameter

a and b

all are correct
blood vessel diameter
Why does the blood pressure drop steepest in the arterioles?
they are farthest from the heart

these vessels have no elastic tissue

this is the site of highest resistance

these vessels have more elastic tissue they the others
this is the site of highest resistance
What is largely responsible for the generation of colloidal osmotic pressure of the blood?
antibodies

electrolytes

hormones

large globular proteins

colloidal gold
large globular proteins
The myocardium receives O2 and nutrients from:
diffusion directly from the blood in the atria

diffusion directly from the blood in the ventricles

diffusion directly from the lungs

capillary beds of the coronary circulation

capillary beds of the pulmonary circulation
capillary beds of the coronary circulation
Which is the most accurate definition of artery?
a blood vessel that carries highly oxygenated blood

a blood vessel that lacks valves

a blood vessel that contains valves

a blood vessel that conducts blood away from the heart

a blood vessel that conducts blood toward the heart
a blood vessel that conducts blood away from the heart
Important sites of pericellular transport across continuous capillary walls would be:
intercellular clefts

gap junctions

fenestrations

sinusoids

none of the above
intercellular clefts
Which of the following is the source of most of the peripheral resistance?
elastic arteries

muscular arteries

arterioles

capillaries
arterioles
Identify the mechanism or mechanisms which aid in maintaining and increasing venous flow of blood.
skeletal muscle pumping

respiratory pumping

one-way valves

a and c

all of the above
All of the above
The muscle layer of blood vessels is described as circular muscle because:
each cell is round in cross section

several cells are oriented end-to-end to form an approximate circle

each cell forms a ring-shape by itself
several cells are oriented end-to-end to form an approximate circle
The vessels that regulate blood flow to specific organs are the:
elastic arteries

muscular arteries

arterioles

venules

veins
muscular arteries
Choose the TRUE statement.
blood pressure measured in the brachial vein is the systemic blood pressure

blood flows from low to high pressure

resistance of large blood vessels is very low

blood vessel length is actively regulated

an inelastic aorta would have less fluctuation in blood pressur
resistance of large blood vessels is very low
Which of the following factors contribute to vascular resistance?
blood vessel diameter

blood vessel length

blood viscosity

all of the above

none of the above
all of the above
Activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system always reduces blood flow to the:
brain

kidney

skin

because it decreases systemic blood pressure, epinephrine always decreases blood flow to all organs of the body.

because it increases systemic blood pressure, epinephrine always increases blood flow to all organs of the body.
Kidney
Muscarinic receptor molecules are associated with:
decrease in heart rate

increase in heart rate

skeletal muscle contraction

hormonal regulation of heart rate

hormonal regulation of stroke volume
decrease in heart rate
Where along the circulatory system do most substances enter or leave the blood?
arterioles

arteries

capillaries

veins
capillaries
The most important determinant(s) of "short-term" regulation of blood pressure is/are:
cardiac output

blood volume

peripheral resistance

1 and 3

none of the above
Cardiac output and peripheral resistance
Which of the following chemical mediators does not serve to increase arterial blood pressure?
epinephrine

antidiuretic hormone

angiotensin II

nitric oxide

none of the above
ADH
Which part of the circulatory system contains the largest total blood volume under normal conditions?
the capillaries

the large & medium sized arteries, arterioles and aorta

the large & medium sized veins, vein networks and venules

the pulmonary circuit

the heart
the large & medium sized veins, vein networks and venules
Arteries in the head and neck must contain valves because blood is flowing away from gravitational pull.

A- true, otherwise blood could not go up the neck and into the head

B- true, and in fact all arteries have valves

C- false, arterial blood pressure is sufficiently high that valves are unnecessary
C- false, arterial blood pressure is sufficiently high that valves are unnecessary
10. You have moved to the high Andean mountains to study high altitude physiology. After a months you notice that you have higher blood pressure then before. The best explanation for this change in blood pressure is you have had an increased in........
vessel length

blood viscosity

blood vessel diameter

a and b

all are correct
blood viscosity
Complement proteins:
are a type of antibody.
are a type of cytokine.
are secreted by plasma cells.
are secreted by some types of T cells.
circulate in the plasma in an inactive form
circulate in the plasma in an inactive form
Which of the following is not a function of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I protein?
A-presents antigens from bacteria infecting a body cell to T cells to stimulate a specific immune system response

B-presents antigens from viruses infecting a body cell to T cells to stimulate a specific immune system response

C-presents antigens from proteins produced in a cancerous cell to T cells to stimulate a specific immune system response

D-presents antigens from cancer or foreign microorganisms to identify infected cells to cytotoxic T cells

E-presents antigens from phagocytosed microorganisms to both B and T cells to stimulate specific immune system responses
E-presents antigens from phagocytosed microorganisms to both B and T cells to stimulate specific immune system responses
How is active humoral immunity usually initiated?

A -A macrophage phagocytoses a foreign substance and digests it; the macrophage then presents antigens from the foreign substance to a helper T cell (along with secreting interleukin 1) which secretes cytokines to stimulate B cell activation and division.

B -B cells in a lymph node bind to an antigen on a foreign substance; the B cells present the antigen to a helper T cell. Cytokines from the activated helper T cell stimulate B cell division.

C -Infected body cells activate cytotoxic T cells to divide.

D -a and b.

E -all of the above
D -a and b.
Which of the following phrases best defines agglutination?
A- Attachment of antibodies to specific proteins on the membranes of cells such that long chains of cells and antibodies are formed that precipitate from a solution.
B-Polymerization of long strands of fibrin from fibrinogen due to the actions of thrombin.

C-Polymerization of long strands of fibrin from fibrinogen due to the actions of thromboplastin.

D- Groups of red blood cells and platelets trapped within fibrin strands.

E-A horrible allergic reaction to gluten.
A
Which cell type coordinates immune responses by activating and enhancing the activity of T cells, B cells and phagocytic cells?
A- helper T cells
B-cytotoxic T cells
C-suppressor T cells
D-plasma cells
E-memory B cells
A- helper T cells
How is active humoral immunity usually initiated?

A- A macrophage phagocytoses a foreign substance and digests it; the macrophage then presents antigens from the foreign substance to a helper T cell (along with secreting interleukin 1). The helper T cell then binds to the appropriate B cell and secretes cytokines to co-stimulate B cell activation and division.

B- B cells in a lymph node bind to an antigen on a foreign substance; the B cells present the antigen to a cytotoxic T cell. Cytokines from the activated cytotoxic T cell stimulate B cell division.

C- Infected body cells activate helper T cells to divide.

D- a and b.
E- all of the above
a and b.
The only T cell population that can directly attack and kill cells are the:
A-cytotoxic cells.
B-helper cells.
C-suppressor cells.
D- plasma cells
A-cytotoxic cells.
Spleen?
Filters the blood
Tonsils
Filters Air, food, and mucus
Lymph node?
Filters lymph
The lymph from the lower body is returned to the cardiovascular system at the artery via the . (Pick the pair of words which best fills in the blanks.)
A- right subclavian vein -- right thoracic duct
B-left subclavian vein -- left thoracic duct
C- inferior vena cava -- cisterna chyli
D- right subclavian vein -- left thoracic duct
E- left subclavian vein-- right thoracic duct
D- right subclavian vein -- left thoracic duct
Which of the following cells are fixed macrophages?
A-Kupffer cells
B-monocytes
C-neutrophils
D-basophils
E-natural killer cells
C-neutrophils
Which of the following would not really qualify as a nonspecific defense mechanism?

A-acidity of sweat, gastric and vaginal secretions
B- antibody binding to a bacteria and activating complement formation
C- the mucus and cilia lining the respiratory tract
the inflammatory response
D- fever
B- antibody binding to a bacteria and activating complement formation
What type of cell is always infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) once a person is infected?
A-B cells
B-natural killer cells
C-cytotoxic T cells, CD8 cells
D-helper T cells, CD4 cells
E-neurons in the brain
D-helper T cells, CD4 cells
In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
A-antibody
B-lymphocyte
C-antigen
D-macrophage
E-Cloning of any form/type is not a phenomenon which happens in nature
C-antigen
Costimulation is
the binding of an antigen to a T or B cell to activate that clone.

the binding of a cytokine to its receptor on a T or B cell to activate that clone.

the binding of an antigen to a T or B cell accompanied by the binding of a cytokine to its receptor on the same T or B cell to activate that clone.

the binding of interleukin-1 to receptors of cells is the hypothalamus to initiate a fever to aid the function of the antibodies secreted by plasma cells and the cytokines secreted by helper T cells during a specific immune system response.

the binding of cytokines from a helper T cell to their receptors on macrophages, microphages and natural killer cells to enhance their response to an infection
C-the binding of an antigen to a T or B cell accompanied by the binding of a cytokine to its receptor on the same T or B cell to activate that clone.
Lymphatic capillaries found in the intestinal villi that are important to lipid absorption are termed:
intestinal glands
lacteals
duodenal glands
chyme
none of the above.
B-Lacteals
The sac-like initial portion of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the legs and the intestinal tract is the:
lacteal
right lymphatic duct
cisterna chyli
lymph vessel
none of the above.
C-Cisterna chyli
The lymphoid organ important to overall function of both the immune system and the hematopoietic system is the:
thymus
spleen
lymph node
tonsil
none of the above.
Spleen
The lymphoid cells that serve as the foundation of our humoral immune system are the:
cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells
suppressor T cells
B cells
none of the above.
B cells