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140 terms

Health Exam 2

SSR Rocks my socks <3
STUDY
PLAY
Aversive Conditioning
Client experiences unpleasant stimuli (shock, verbal insults) after behaving undesirably.
Behavior Therapy
Principles of social learning are used to assist people in forming accurate perceptions of their feelings and themselves.
Biofeedback
Monitoring of body functioning provides feedback to the client.
Cognitive Therapy
Client is taught to understand the irrationality of his or her thoughts or behaviors.
Encounter Groups
Confrontational strategies are used to allow members to express true feelings.
Existential Therapy
Emphasis is placed on free will and using the free will to develop insight and self-understanding.
Family Therapy
This form of group therapy is directed at families.
Feminist Therapy
Focuses on role of society and the role of discrimination in daily life.
Flooding Therapy
Client is placed in a real situation that he or she fears, normally accompanied by the therapist.
Gestalt Therapy
An approach that employs role-playing and confrontation.
Group Therapy
Psychotherapeutic principles are applied to group.
Humanistic Therapies
The focus is on conscious thoughts and present times as opposed to psychodynamic (unconscious thoughts and past experience)
Implosive Therapy
Clients imagine and deal with their worst fears in a safe environment with a therapist.
Marital Therapy
Husbands and wives receive therapy together to assist them in a more productive relationship
Modeling
Client watches another person perform the feared behavior and with the help of the therapist copies that behavior
Person-centered therapy
A warm, supportive environment is created where a person feels accepted and can reveal true feelings
Psychodrama
Role-playing strategies are used including role-reversal.
Psychodynamic Therapies
Freudian "insight" therapies are used and involve free association and dream analysis; can be found on the unconscious and past experiences.
Self-help groups
These support groups assist people in displaying behaviors to reduce risk of recitivism to a previous problem behavior (alcohol dependence)
Sensitivity Groups
Strategies are used to promote self-awareness and trust of others.
Systematic Desenitization
Principles of relaxation and visualization are used
Token Economy
Tokens are given as rewards for behavior in an effort to shape the behavior
Mental Health
The successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activities
Psychosomatic
Refers to the influence of the mind on the way the body functions
Chemical messengers (Hormones)
Influence neurotransmitters in the brain that relate to the mood
Depression
When our body produces too little of certain neurotransmitters
Culture and Health
Culture also influences mental health (for example: by emphasizing the importance of something an individual member of that culture can't attain, causing conflict and negative mind-body outcomes).
Behavior
how someone acts
Motivation
Something that leads to a behavior
Self-concept
A set of core beliefs and values that you feel describes yourself.
Self-Esteem
How you feel about your core qualities and attributes
Assertiveness
Being open and honest about declaring your rights
Aggressiveness
Forceful behavior with the intent to dominate
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Five levels of needs:
1. Physiological needs (hunger, thirst, shelter, etc)
2. Safety
3. Belonging and love
4. Self esteem
5. Self actualization

If first two levels are met, there is more motivation for the rest of the levels to be obtained

Characteristics of Goo Mental Health are similar to Maslow's Hierarchy and the Behavior Paradigm, as well as Defense Mechanisms
Simple Behavior Paradigm
Behavior is either need directed or goal directed.
Occurs in the following stages:
Goal or need -> Instrumental Behavior -> Goal reached -> Relief
Alternate Behavior Paradigm
Goal or Ned -> Instrumental Behavior -> Goal Not Reached -> Tension -> Frustration -> Response -> No relief/relief

Last stage can also be a result of "goal not reached" and "Tension"
Defense Mechanisms
When need is not met, simple responses are anger, or assertiveness and challenging something to try and get need meet.
Defense Mechanisms
Is anger and assertiveness do not work then become aggressive
Defense Mechanisms
Another way to respond is to protect or defend our ego (conscious state of how we perceive our self)
Rationalization
Making excuses for our need not being met
Defense Mechanisms
Denial (Simply not acknowledging that there is any frustration or conflict)
Defense Mechanisms
Displacement: Expression frustration by attacking another target
Defense Mechanisms
Repression: Selective forgetting; refusing to think about the event that led to the frustration
Defense Mechanisms
Reaction formation: displaying behaviors that are the opposite of the ones that we are actually feeling
Defense Mechanisms
Project formation: Accusing another person of the same unacceptable behaviors we have displayed
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They feel good about themselves
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They do not become overwhelmed by emotions such as fear, anger, love, jealously, guilty or, anxiety
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They have lasting and satisfying personal relationships
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They feel comfortable with other people
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They can laugh at themselves with others
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They have respect for themselves and others even if there are differences
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They are able to accept life's disappointments
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They can meet life's demands and handle problems when they arise
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They make their own decisions
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
They shape their environment whenever possible and adjust to it when necessary
Characteristic of Good Mental Health
Characteristics of Goo Mental Health are similar to Maslow's Hierarchy and the Behavior Paradigm, as well as Defense Mechanisms:

Positive self image
Good communication skills
A sense of humor
A healthy response to unmet needs
Good problem solving skills
Suicide
8th leading cause of death in the US
Suicide
3rd leading cause of death among 15-24 year olds
Suicide
Depression is usually a precursor
Suicide
Sociologist Emile Durkheim identified 3 types of suicide:

Egoistic suicide: ending one's life as a response to not being able to assimilate into a group or society

Altruistic suicide: Taking one's life to advance a cause of an ideal

Anomic suicide: When a person or group that provided a sense of security no longer exists
Warning Signs of Suicide
Feeling of hopelessness
Withdrawing from family and friends
Sleeping too much or too little
Feeling tired most of the time
Acting compulsively
Losing interest in most activities
Giving away prized possessions
Isolating oneself socially
Feeling depressed
Acting irrationally
Being preoccupied with death
Behaving recklessly
Abusing alcohol and drugs
Being unable to concentrate

(Many of these warning signs are also warning signs for depression as well as suicide)
Steps to Prevent Suicide
Always take suicidal comments seriously
Try not to act shocked by what a suicidal person might say
Do not handle the situation yourself- get assistance from a health professional
Listen attentively to everything the person has to say
Comfort the person with the words of encouragement
Let the person know that you are deeply concerned
Do not leave them alone
Talk openly about it
If a person talks about committing suicide with a firearm, contract the police for its removal
Don't be judgmental
Be careful about the statements you make
Listen!
Let the person express emotion in the way he or she wants
Stimulants, Depressants, and Hallucinogens
These can serve as chemical Band Aids that exert a psychoactive affect to lessen the intensity of the response to tension, frustration, and conflict. When the drug's effects wear off then the situation gets worse
Homicide
The 2nd leading cause of death for people between 15-34 and is the leading cause of deaths for African Americans in this age group.
Anorexia Nervosa
Can result in low BP, reduction of bone density, muscle loss and weakness, and kidney failure.
It is the fear of being fat when at or below normal weight.
Restricting eating so weight falls more than 15% than what is healthy
Bulimina Nervosa
Binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight gain such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives and diuretics.

Results in: Gastric rupture, inflammation of esophagus, tooth decay, peptic ulcers, and pancreatitis
Binge Eating
Overeating as a response to frustration and conflict
Anxiety
Excessive worry and concern that is unpleasant and involves apprehension, fear, and panic

Symptoms: Trembling, jumpiness, inability to relax, racing heart, irritability, hyperactivity, insomnia, and apprehension
General Anxiety Disorder
Constant and uncontrollable worry and concern about everything
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
After a traumatic event, persistent frightening, thoughts, feelings, and memories interfere with one's life
Panic Disorders
Sudden overwhelming attacks of fear
Short but frequent attacks, uncontrolled thoughts of impending doom
Phobias
Fears of specific events, objects, or situations
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Characterized by the repetition of the same act over and over again (compulsion) as a response to persistent unwanted thought or images (obsession)
Depression
Feelings of worthlessness, indecisiveness, guilt, sadness, and apprehension
Dysthymia
Form of depression that is long term that is less severe than major depression, but still impairs functioning to some degree.
Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive Illness)
Extreme elation (mania) followed by the extreme low of depression
Seasonal Affective Disorder
When symptoms of depression are experienced during a specific season of the year
Personality Disorders
Groups of persistent behaviors that impair social, academic, or professional functioning or cause personal distress.
Paranoid Personality Disorder
Excessive distrustfulness and suspicious of others
Expects to be abused by others
Doesn't confide in others
Extreme Jealousy
Schizoid personality disorder
extreme detachment from social situations and limited emotions in interpersonal relations
person is usually socially isolated, exhibits bizarre behaviors and beliefs about the world, and is suspicious of others
Schizophrenia
Involves distorted thoughts and perceptions, atypical communication, inappropriate emotions, abnormal motor behavior, and social withdrawal
Paranoid Schizophrenics
Experience delusions and auditory hallucinations
Trust no one and are constantly on guard that others are plotting against them
Catatonic Schizophrenics
Characterized by excessive inactivity
Can retain same posture for long periods of time
May alternate between violent behavior and being immobile and totally unresponsive to the outside world
Disorganized schizophrenics
Experience extreme delusions, hallucinations, and have inappropriate patterns of speech, mood, and movements
Extreme laughing and crying at unsuitable times
Undifferentiated schizophrenic
A schizophrenic who has delusions, hallucinations, and have inappropriate patterns of speech, mood, and movements
Residual schizophrenia
A condition in which one episode of schizophrenia has occurred but there are currently no prominent psychotic symptoms
Psychotherapy
Performed by a psychotherapist
Biomedical approach
involves the use of drug therapies to treat the disorder
Anti-anxiety drugs
Valium and Xanax
Anti-depressant drugs
Prozac, zoloft, and paxil
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Electrodes administer shocks to the patient,w ho experiences a seizure and then lapses into unconsciousness
ECT affects nerve cells and the root physiological causes of depression
Last resort
Stress
The collective psychobiological responses that occur when a person's natural balance is disrupted
Stressor
Any factor or force that disrupts homeostasis
Can be physical or psychological
Acute Stressor
Brief but intense factor that disrupts homeostasis
Episodic Stressor
Regular or predictable but intermittent stressor
Chronic Stressor
Prolonged and continuous stressor
Distress
A negative stress condition created by stressors that deplete energy and results in impaired performance
Eustress
Positive stress, create by stressors that motivate and result in improved performance
Flight or fight response
The urge to act when threatened by coordinating stress responses to provide extra strength and energy needed to cope. This includes an increase in heart rate and breathing, a tensing of muscles, and a focusing of attention.
General Adaptation Syndrome
A model that describes the body's physiological responses to stressors in three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
General Adaptation Syndrome
Response is achieved via the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, and the voluntary nervous system
Stress hormones
Chemical messengers (epinephrine and cortisol)
Alarm Stage of GAS
All physiological changes heighten awareness and ready the body for action
Resistance Stage of GAS
The body mobilize energy and biochemical resources as needed to withstand the threat. The body wants to adapt to the stressor and to regain homeostasis
Exhaustion stage of GAS
Body cannot handle overload of stressors, makes the body very vunerable
Transaction of mod of stress and coping
Stress is a particular relationship between th person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his/her resources and endangering his/her well being
Transactions
Stressful experiences are seen as person-environment interactions
Two fundamental ones: Person's judgement about the significance of the stressor, and the person's self-appraisal of his or her ability to cope
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Uses a statistical analysis of responses from a diverse group of individuals, values were assigned to a variety of events based on their perceived stressfulness (values indicate the relative impact of stressful events on health and give a sense of the wide range of stressors in our lives)
Urban Press
Negative environmental stressors from the city that have been show to harm health
Sleep
1 in 5 Americans do not get enough of this
Sleep
This is both a cause of insomnia and is a stressor if lacking.
Persistent Stress
Damages the systems used to activate in the presence of stressors
Type A personality
Type of people who continually put themselves in stressful situations
Hostility
Primary trait that puts people at risk for the development of heart disease and other stress related medical conditions (signs of anger, aggression, and cynicism)
Type B Personality
Individuals are methodical, move at a slower place, generally easy going
Status syndrome
Refers to the effect of social position on a person's quality of life and longevity beyond that accounted for by education/income
View on Stress
Stress triggers specific physiological changes that make us more vulnerable to illness and disease via molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms
View on Stress (Mind and body view)
The excessive stress, poor health conditions is due to psychological factors such as stress perception, coping abilities, individual autonomy, social support, and modern day environmental stressors
Tend and befriend response
behavior pattern of protecting and caring for offspring and seeking social support exhibited by humans when under threat. (appears to have both biological and psychological sources)
Time management
The planned efficient use of one's time
Locus of Control
A psychological concept referring to a person's beliefs about the underlying causes of events in his or her life. The beliefs are described in one of two ways.
Internal Control orientation
Belief that outcomes of their actions depends on what they do
People who believe in this know how to act in order to achieve their desired outcome
External Control orientation
outcomes are based on events outside their personal control and that they have little influence
people who believe in this trend wait passively
for whatever comes their way
Deep Breathing
Breathing deeply, using the full capacity of your lungs
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Systematiaclly contracts and relaxes different muscles in a sequential order coupled with deep breathing exercise
Visualization
Sit in a quiet, comfy place and visualize a peaceful scene in nature
Meditation
Adopting a passive attitude towards one's thoughts as they come and go
Physical Activity
Simulates the action of the classic fight or flight response
Cerebellum
A wrinkled ball of tissue on the upper spinal cord. Responsible for learned rote movements.
Cerebrum
Outermost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. Holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. Split into two halves. Words on the left half, artistic ability/abstract reasoning on the right.
Broca's Area
Controls speech
Frontal lobes
Allows for multitasking
Parietal Lobes
Sit behind the frontal lobes. These contain sensory areas.
Occipital Lobes
Process images from eyes and link that information with images.
Temporal Lobes
Lie in front of the occipital lobes, receive information from the ears, underside of the lobe helps retrieve memory. Other parts integrate multiple memories and sensations.
Cerebal Cortex
Processing area of the brain.
Acetylcholine
Exciter neurostransmitter, governs muscle contractions and cases glands to secrete hormones.
GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Inhibitory neurotransmitter tends to make cells less excitable. Helps visual system and control muscle activity
Serotonin
Constricts blood vessels and brings on sleep. Involved in regulation of behavior, mood, pain, and temperature regulation
Dopamine
Inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in mood and the control of complex movements.