Psych of Offender
Terms in this set (150)
Which school of thought suggests that judges should disregard the political and social implications of their rulings?*
Subcultural theories (e.g., the theory of focal concerns) does not explain crime by ____.
those who are not socially disadvantaged
Bandura s book, Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis, emphasizes modeling of aggression in three contexts. Which one of the following is not one of the areas emphasized?*
California s three-strikes laws (laws stating that after a 3rd criminal conviction, offenders go to prison for a very long time) is a reflection of which model of the criminal justice system?*
crime control model
What percentage of defendants plea bargain?
________ argues that society brands persons who commit crimes, thereby leading them to live up to negative connotations.
Social Labeling Theory
As discussed in class, Eysenck theorized that one s conscience develops as repeated pairings of previously unrelated stimuli create an unconscious association of guilt and/or anxiety with bad behavior. What basic behavioral process is this an example of?
___________ are written documents that provide the courts with information from psychological science and practice relevant to the issues of a particular case.
Amicus curiae briefs
In Darly et al.'s research on the public's opinion of the Model Penal Code, how did participants tend to respond when the person in the scenario reached the point of dangerous proximity to the crime?
they prescribed punishment that was less severe than if person committed the crime, but more severe than if only preliminary action was taken towards carrying out the crime
Those within the classical school of criminology believed which of the following with regard to punishment?
The punishment should fit the crime.
In contrast to the crime control model, the due process model would subscribe to which of the following statements?
It is better for many guilty persons to go free than to convict one innocent person.
___________ is a two-part theory of crime that takes into account environmental controls and internal restraints; it is also one of the only theories to offer an explanation as to how a law-abiding person remains so in a high-crime environment.*
Which of the following is a basic characteristic of the crime control model of the criminal justice system?
Emphasis in the courts should be on the detection and prosecution of criminals.
The link between violence in the mass media and violent behavior is addressed by _____.
The assumption that people will behave antisocially until they learn not to offend through a combination of inner and external constraints fits in which theory?
Cloward and Ohlin s theory of _____________ assumes that those who grow up in lower socioeconomic subcultures still possess the conventional goals of the middle class. Since society denies them legal means of achieving these goals, they become frustrated and resort to committing crimes.
When faced with making legal decisions, judges are reluctant to make decisions that contradict earlier judicial decisions. This propensity is an example of the principle of:
Some limitations to Yochelson and Samenow s (1976) study on Criminal Thinking Patterns include all EXCEPT:
Only relatives (not actual offenders) were interviewed
Tommy is often spanked for misbehaving. Which theorist would point to this discipline as a model for later aggressive behavior?
With regard to punishment, positivists believe which of the following?*
The punishment should fit the crime rather than the criminal.
When you are making inferences about what caused YOU to commit an act that has negative consequences, you would tend to blame:
external and unstable causes.
As discussed in class, recent studies on violence in video games (including Anderson et al. s (2010) meta-analysis), showed exposure to violence in video games is a risk factor for:
More aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior
While _________ theories of crime propose crime results from dysfunctional social situations (e.g., living in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods), ____________ theories of crime propose crime results when groups of people endorse cultural values that clash with the dominant, conventional rules of society.
Lester Zygmanik was charged with murdering his brother, George after George was severely injured in a motorcycle accident. George did not want to live his life as a quadriplegic and asked Lester to kill him; Lester did as his brother asked. If you were a juror in this case and you were making decisions based on black letter law, you would decide that Lester is:
Which of the following conditions are NOT required for observational learning to occur?
Observer must inform the model he/she approves of the behavior
Mass murderers are more likely to commit suicide than serial killers and tend to do so prior to arrest.
Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder are the same diagnosis.
"David Berkowitz (the ""Son of Sam"" killer), a man currently imprisoned for killing six people under the command of his neighbor's dog, falls into what category of serial killer?"
visionary serial killer
"Since 2001, the number of arrests of juveniles has _______."
"A potential serial murder has occurred, and law enforcement asked a criminal profiler to assist with the case. If the criminal profiler is examining the data, forming hypotheses based on the organization/disorganization of the crime scene (and other factors), and determining the behavior of the offender and victim, which step of profiling is the profiler on?"
"The police are investigating a string of murders. They feel sure the murders are connected because each time, the victim's left shoe is taken from the body. What is this an example of?"
Which is NOT one of Hare's four factors (or domains) of psychopathy?
Asocial (preferring solitude, introverted)
Which is the correct order of the six steps of FBI criminal profiling?
"profiling inputs, decision process models, crime assessment, criminal profile, investigation, apprehension"
What is juvenile diversion?
An attempt to channel juvenile offenders out of the Juvenile Justice System
The Mad Bomber was apprehended based on which criminal profile?
"Heavyset, middle-aged, Eastern European descent, Catholic, lived with female relative"
The majority of mentally ill individuals will commit a violent crime at some point in their lifetime.
Which of these is exclusively a legal term?
"In the case of Dudley v. Stephens (1884), several survivors of a shipwreck were charged with murder after killing and eating a fellow crewmember to stay alive. Why was this NOT considered self-defense?"
The crewmember was not actively attacking them
Most homicide offenses involve a single victim.
"Jim, a disgruntled postal worker, rushed into the post office one Thursday afternoon and sprayed his fellow employees with gunfire, killing ten and wounding many more. What type of multiple murderer is Jim?"
Stigma affects people with mental disorders in the following ways:
decreased feelings of pity
Juveniles under age ____ cannot be sentenced to the death penalty.
The juvenile justice system is based on the belief that:
Juveniles requires special protections because they are still developing.
"The validity of criminal profiling has been called into question by researchers and other professionals. Which group s predictions were most accurate, and which subtype of offenders was the group more accurate about?"
Expert profilers+detectives; sexual offenders
"Which of these is NOT a part of the MacDonald triad, also called the homicidal triad?"
Criminal profiling utilizes ___________________ to determine _______________.
Crime scene characteristics; criminal behavioral and personality characteristics
In what ways does a hedonistic comfort killer NOT differ from the other hedonistic killers?
Murders include elements of pleasure
Which of the following scenarios could indicate a higher risk of violence for someone with a mental disorder?*
"Johnny experiences strong delusions that he is the new Savior. He hears the voice of God telling him to strike down all of the sinners in the world. He is on medication, which helps the hallucinations. He recently was laid-off from his job due to company cut-backs. Also, he just found out his sister and brother-in-law, with whom he lives, are getting a divorce; they have been having a lot of loud arguments lately."
All of these are examples of negative symptoms in schizophrenia EXCEPT:
Tom goes to an abortion clinic and kills several women. Then he drives to a second abortion clinic and kills several more women. What type of multiple murderer is Tom?
A person who believes in a "just world" would be more likely to:
need to give causes or explanations for the misfortunes of others.
blame the victims of the crime.
feel threatened by the thought of becoming a victim.
_________________________ is when someone unconsciously selects some information to focus on and process because they have a limited attentional capacity and cannot process a lot of information at one time.
Those wrongly imprisoned are typically well compensated for the time they spent in prison.
Last night Laura was robbed at gunpoint. When asked to describe the perpetrator, she found that all she could remember was the gun and not the way the perpetrator looked. Which of the best following describes this circumstance?
weapon focus effect
Which of the following is NOT a problem for the legal system when repressed memories are recovered?*
Recovered memory cases never actually make it in front of a judge
The other-race effect refers to the idea that:
eyewitnesses are usually better at recognizing and identifying members of their own race or ethnic group than members of another race or ethnic group.
Researchers recommend that a person conducting a lineup should tell the witness that the culprit may or may not be present in the lineup. Without this instruction, what tends to happen?
False identifications tend to increase.
The eyewitness may feel that they must choose someone.
The eyewitness tends to choose the person who most resembles the person they witnessed.
Which of the following are misconceptions held about battered women?
Middle- and upper-class men don't batter.
Battered women provoke the assaults inflicted on them.
Battered women are free to leave these violent relationships any time they want.
If a memory seems detailed, the person seems confident, and emotion is expressed when the memory is contemplated, then the event definitely occurred.
Research suggests jurors overestimate eyewitness accuracy because
they assume eyewitnesses are accurate and have credible memories.
they believe eyewitness testimony reflects memory quality, not questioning or line up procedures.
they trust eyewitness' over-confidence in their identifications.
Which of these is a protective factor that may help a victim to not develop PTSD?
receiving social support after trauma
Tom has just thrown his wife to the floor and repeatedly kicked her in the stomach. Suddenly he picks her up and cradles her to his body, crying and promising that he will never hurt her again (he's said that before). According to your textbook, what stage of the cycle of violence is Tom now in?
A person witnesses a mugging. The perpetrator showed a gun to the victim and threatened to shoot if the victim did not turn over his wallet. The witness had a clear view of the event, but cannot remember the details of the perpetrator's face after it was all over. Which step of information processing was likely impaired in this situation?*
When talking about trauma, we often find that people tend to "blame the victim," meaning that if someone is hurt, abused, etc., it is their fault instead of a circumstantial occurrence. As a result of this _____________ attitude, we find the "blamer" feels less pressure to help the victim.
Thomas is the victim of a crime, and he has been called down to the police station to view a lineup. After some thought, he chooses the fourth person from the left. The detective administering the lineup says, "Good, we thought that was the one." According to research presented in your textbook, what is the likely result of this confirming feedback?
Thomas will be more willing to testify at the trial.
Thomas now sees this person's face more clearly in his memories of the crime.
Thomas feels more confident about his identification.
In class we discussed how some of Aileen Wuornos' symptoms (such as her troubled relationships and variable moods) might suggest that she has what diagnosis?*
borderline personality disorder
What is the correct order of processes in perception and memory (first to last)?
encoding, storage, retrieval
Sometimes police just look for evidence that implicates a suspect that has been identified by an eyewitness, and stop investigating any other leads. This situation is an illustration of:
Greg is viewing a lineup with simultaneous presentation. He had told police that the person he saw commit the crime is white with light hair. When presented with six white people in his lineup, he chooses the person who has the lightest hair in the group. How would we best characterize this judgment?
All of the following are recent changes in rape laws EXCEPT:
Allowing testimony about a victim's past sexual behaviors
Diane was the sole witness to a crime. After witnessing the crime, she talked with her husband and her co-workers about what she saw. According to your textbook, these discussions potentially can taint her memory of the crime event because they can:
introduce post-event information that may alter her memory for the original event.
A cognitive interview that emphasizes context reinstatement would NOT involve:
hypnotizing the victim.
The majority of rapes are committed:
by an acquaintance
Based on your impression of her from the video in class, what category of serial killer would Aileen Wuornos fall into?
Hedonistic comfort killer
In a simultaneous presentation lineup _________________ is used, while in a sequential presentation lineup ___________________ is used.
relative judgment; absolute judgment
Which finding was presented on a graph during the Miranda lecture?
"The average reading level (i.e., comprehension difficulty) for juvenile Miranda warnings was greater than the average reading level for adult Miranda warnings."
"Law enforcement and other trained personnel are significantly better (i.e., greater than 10 percentage points) at detecting deception than the general population."
"When the interrogator attends to the reaction of the suspect after telling her, I am absolutely certain you robbed the bank, the interrogator is using _________ (which is part of the Reid Technique)."
direct positive confrontation
"The police officer brings a suspect into the interrogation room for questioning. The suspect says, Listen, Officer, if you are going to keep asking me questions, then I should probably have my lawyer here. Because he pretty much asked for a lawyer, the police officer has to stop asking questions."
Margaret has been brought in to the police station for questioning. The interrogation has been going on for about an hour now. After a long bout of silence, the police officer says, "listen, Margaret...off the record, did you do it?" Then, she gives her confession because he told her their conversation was "off the record." Legally, this police officer cannot use her confession in court as evidence.
false, going off the record means nothing in court
When using verbal and behavioral cues, the average untrained observer correctly detects deception:
about 50% of time
"Joann is being tried for first degree murder (a serious offense). The evidence against her is strong, and there is already talk of the prosecution pushing for the death penalty. Joann asserts that she heard the voice of the devil telling her to kill the victim. The prosecution is requiring a forensic assessment to determine her mental health status. According to the adaptational model of malingering:"
"Joann would generally not dream of attempting to malinger, but given the context and the possibility of being sentenced to death, she is doing so to survive"
"Boris has been stopped for drunk driving. Before the police question Boris, do they have to give him the Miranda warning?"*
The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and its revised version (the SIRS-2) were designed to reduce the potential for ______.
Police officers are required by law to make sure defendants understand their Miranda rights after they read them to the defendant.
"Trevor was taken to the police station for questioning because he was suspected of committing a robbery. While the police are transporting Trevor to the station, he confesses. The police had not yet begun questioning Trevor and had not yet given him the Miranda warning. Is this confession admissible?"
The police are questioning Stuart and they tell him that they have a witness who saw him outside the victim s apartment. This is not true; they have no such witness. Are the police allowed to use a trick like this when they are trying to get a confession?
"Brief, nearly involuntary facial expressions of an experienced emotion are called:"
"If someone malingers (or feigns) a mental disorder, they definitely do not have any genuine mental health problems (e.g., depression, PTSD, etc.)."
According to Reid and Associates, why is it important to take into account the emotionality of the suspect during an interrogation?
If the suspect is more emotional, it is a more useful strategy to use a sympathetic approach during the interrogation; if the suspect is non-emotional, it is more useful to appeal to analyze the facts of the case and focus on reasoning.
"The police believe that Doug is guilty of the murder of an elderly woman. They interrogate him for 14 hours. Doug knows that he is innocent but can t stand the thought of the questioning continuing, and so he confesses. What type of false confession is this?"
compliant false confession
Can a forensic psychologist conduct an assessment of malingering?
"No because psychological assessments are not equipped to reliably measure motivational factors that are, by definition, required for malingering."
Which is NOT a potential cause for a false confession?
None of the above, they are all causes of false confession
Asking subjects to recall a series of events in reverse chronological order and requiring them to determine whether a figure that reappears on a computer screen is similar to a figure seen earlier would likely be part of:
cognitive load interview
Which of the following is a difference between therapeutic and forensic assessment?
-therapeutic assessment is broadly focused; forensic assessment is narrowly focused
-therapeutic assessment is client-directed; forensic assessment is court-ordered or attorney-directed
-therapeutic assessment allows doctor-patient confidentiality; in forensic assessment confidentiality is more ambiguous
The psychologist in the documentary about Andrea Yates believed that Andrea suffered from:
Which of the following is one of the main criticisms of the Reid Technique?
too easily produces false confessions
A police officer arrests you because he pretty much watched you rob a kid's lemonade stand. He starts interrogating you by asking you questions, getting in your face to intimidate you, etc. You remain silent - can this officer use your silence against you in the court of law?
No, silence cannot be used against you in court.
Recording police interrogations can improve the quality of interrogations by:
-helping to ensure that police officers are not coercive when interrogating.
-helping to ensure that suspects cannot inappropriately claim to have been coerced during interrogation.
The diathesis-stress model discussed in class (with the example of the 2 cups on the board) suggests that mental illness results from:*
stressful events acting on genetic predisposition
_________________ refers to the defendant's relevant legal capacities after the crime (e.g., for the trial), while _______________ refers to the defendant's mental state at the time the offense was committed.
Research shows that racially heterogeneous juries are:
better problem solvers than racially homogenous juries.
"Remember we talked about the Rodney King case (police brutality, L.A. Riots, etc ). Why was there such a negative response to the outcome of the trial?"*
Jurors were drawn from a community whose demographics favored the defense.
What insanity ruling is currently being used by most states?*
One major advantage of Rogers Competency to Stand Trial-Revised (ECST-R) measure over the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool (MacCAT-CA) is that its questions are based on case-specific information.
"Claire is a prospective juror in a case in which there has been a lot of pretrial publicity. Claire maintains that despite the fact that she has heard of the defendant and is aware of some of the negative publicity, she will be impartial. According to information presented in lecture, should Claire be believed and chosen as a juror?"
"No, people do not always recognize the extent of their biases or they may not be willing to admit to them."
"As a result of Betty s competency evaluation, the doctor concluded that Betty is not only incompetent to stand trial, but that she will probably never be competent. What would most likely happen as a result?"
She'll likely be committed to a hospital through involuntary civil commitment proceedings.
"According to lecture and class, which of the following remedies for the effects of pretrial publicity is likely the most effective and is preferred by most social scientists?"
change of venue
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Insanity Defense Reform Act?
It made it possible for mental-health experts to provide ultimate opinions about the defendant's insanity at the time of the crime.
Mens rea means:
the mental state of knowing the nature and quality of a forbidden act.
"Can a defendant be sane (i.e., criminally responsible at the time of their crime), but still Incompetent to Stand Trial?"
Distinguishing between right and wrong is central to which definition of insanity?*
M Naghten rule
Researchers in Wyoming did a survey and found that their participants think that the insanity plea is used in almost half of all criminal cases. Were those surveyed accurate in their impressions of how often the insanity plea is used?
"When discussing pretrial publicity, we talked about how there is a quandary where two constitutional rights are in conflict with one another. Which amendments were these?"
1st and 6th
"Currently when one is evaluating competence, what really matters is:"
whether or not a defendant has the ability to participate knowingly and meaningfully in the proceedings and assist the defense attorney.
Mr. Smith murdered a gas station clerk. There were several witnesses to the crime, including two people in the store at the time of the crime. There was also a video camera in plain sight, and review of the surveillance revealed that Mr. Smith looked directly at the camera several times. Which of the insanity rulings/standards would consider this information, and what prong does the information address?
ALI standard; volitional prong
"Sometimes when the jury renders a verdict of not guilty by reason of insanity, the defendant spends more time in a mental hospital than he or she would have spent in prison if found guilty, especially when the defendant committed a serious crime."
"The ruling that competence to stand trial is a sufficient present ability to consult with [one s] attorney with a reasonable degree of rational understanding, and a rational, as well as factual understanding of the proceedings stems out of which Supreme Court case?"
Dusky v US (1960)
Available research suggests that the majority of defendants found not guilty by reason of insanity have been diagnosed with:
Trial consultants involved in the OJ Simpson case that we discussed in class suggested what to the prosecutor?*
That she should avoid African Americans in general on the jury and females specifically because they would not be sympathetic to her case
"Who is typically found incompetent, according to research from your book and lecture?"
"Jane, who has a history of psychotic episodes"
"If the defense attorney has reason to believe that a potential juror is biased for one side (for example, has a relationship with one of the people involved in the case), he or she can make a ________________."
challenge for cause
"The Supreme Court and the United States Congress have established requirements for jury selection procedures, including:"
a requirement that the pool from which the jury is selected must constitute a representative cross-section of the community.
Which of the following would be considered a basic foundational question that a mental health professional would focus on when evaluating adjudicative competence (including competency to stand trial)?
-Can the defendant understand the basic elements of the adversarial process?
-Can the defendant use reasoning to relate relevant information to his or her attorney?
-Can the defendant appreciate his or her legal predicament?
Insanity is a psychological concept.
A judge has power over the attorneys to allow or disallow expert testimony in court.
The tabula rasa assumption believes that: *
-jurors are "blank slates" who do not have preconceived notions about a trial
-jurors can be completely unbiased
-jurors can disregard any extraneous information (not presented as evidence) in their decision-making
Which is a possible concern with expert testimony?
-jurors may not be able to understand the highly specialized testimony
-Jurors may rely too heavily on expert testimony
-Jurors may not be able to tell the difference between reliabale science and junk science
Based on what we've discussed in class, as well as studies cited in your book, it appears that imprisoning offenders is the most effective approach to reducing the risk of future crime.
Which of the following is NOT true about expert witnesses?
They can only be employed by the defense
The most common current criteria for determining whether an expert is allowed to testify in court is:
The Daubert Standard
Wrongdoers should compensate victims for their damages and losses. This refers to which of the following punishment goals?
"According to class and Wilson (1975), one function of incapacitating the criminal is to ________ the criminal."
"According to class and your textbook, less than 10% of individuals reoffend after they have been imprisoned."
Which of the following are suggested jury reforms we discussed:*
-Allow jurors to take notes and ask the judge questions
-Provide jury instructions before and after the trial
Amicus curiae (as in amicus briefs) means
friend of the court.
The idea that punishment should be delivered to those who deserve it (i.e., the criminal should get their 'just desserts'), refers to which of the following punishment goals?
In the TED Talk we watched in class, the speaker argued that the criminal justice system should move away from _________ and towards ___________.
imprisonment; restorative justice
"The purpose of the shaming penalty is give offenders what they deserve and encourage them to think hard about what they did that was wrong; however, research shows the shaming penalty may actually elicit more anger and vengeful urges in offenders than cause them to focus on and feel remorseful about the crime they committed."
Punishing an offender is assumed to keep that person from committing other crimes in the future. This refers to which of the following punishment goals?
One con for allowing discretion in sentencing decisions as opposed to determinate sentencing is that:*
-Sentencing disparity may occur
-The judge's sentencing may be influenced by the race and/or gender of the defendant
According to information provided in your textbook, the public tends to favor ____________ sentencing options for less serious offenses and for younger offenders, but favors ____________ sentencing for adult offenders, particularly those who have committed serious crimes.
"If told to disregard inadmissible evidence, jurors can successfully ignore it and not let it affect their verdict."
Which is the correct order of the stages of the Story Model for Juror Decision Making?
"story creation, learning verdict options, verdict decision"
What was the rationale behind the murders orchestrated by Charles Manson?*
helter skelter (to incite the race war)
The most empirically supported model of juror decision making is:
the story model
Which of the following has been shown to impact the sentencing of offenders?
The original purpose of prisons was to _________________; now the goal of prisons is to ____________.*
The Daubert decision listed four factors that judges should consider in assessing the validity and subsequent admissibility of an expert s testimony. Which of the following is NOT one of these four factors?*
the strength of their argument for the pertinent side
To reduce the use of judicial discretion, some states have imposed:
-mandatory minimum sentences.