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biology midterm #3
Terms in this set (84)
All the plants looked like just one of the parents.
What result showed up in the F 1 generation of Mendel's first monohybrid crosses that countered prevailing ideas about inheritance?
gene, allele, allele
A person inherits two copies of the ___ that defines the consistency of their earwax, one from each parent. From her father, she inherits the ___ for dry earwax. From her mother, she inherits the ___ for wet earwax.
three times as many
The dominant traits in Mendel's pea plants were green pea pods ( G) and round peas ( R). Yellow pea pods ( g) and wrinkled peas ( r) were recessive. If you bred plants heterozygous for both characters, GgRr, with each other, how many more plants with green pea pods and round peas would result, on average, than plants with yellow pea pods and round peas?
All would be of medium height.
According to the blended inheritance theory, what would the offspring of a true-breeding tall plant and a true-breeding short plant look like?
it is homozygous recessive for albinism.
Albinism, the trait of being albino, is recessive. What can you accurately predict about an albino mouse?
a dihybrid cross
What type of genetic cross can demonstrate both the principles of segregation and independent assortment?
Huntington's disease, a progressive nervous system disorder, is inherited as a dominant trait. The songwriter Woody Guthrie died of Huntington's disease. If he was heterozygous for the trait and his wife did not carry it, what was the probability that their son would develop Huntington's disease?
If both parents are heterozygous for a trait, what is the probability that a given offspring of theirs will display the recessive trait? Assume the gene for the trait is not sex-linked.
In fruit flies, brown body color ( B) is dominant to black body color ( b). A brown fruit fly is crossed with a black fruit fly. Both flies are purebred. What will the offspring's genotypes be?
In humans, dry earwax is recessive to wet earwax. Consider a woman with dry earwax and her male partner who has wet earwax. If he is heterozygous for the trait of wet earwax, what is the probability that their child will have wet earwax?
In peas, yellow color and round shape are dominant to green color and wrinkled shape, which are recessive. If you have a round, yellow pea and want to know its genotype, what kind of pea should you breed it with?
A heritable substance from a strain of dead bacteria caused a change in the characteristics of a living strain of bacteria.
Which of the following best describes the phenomenon of transformation that Griffith observed in his experiments with different strains of bacteria?
The structural parts of bacteriophages are composed primarily of protein, and the genetic material is DNA.
Hershey-Chase experiments with bacteriophages and bacterial cells led to which of the following important conclusions?
The two strands can separate along the relatively weak hydrogen bonds between the complementary nucleotide bases.
Which of the following best describes how Watson and Crick's model of the DNA molecule was consistent with the function of DNA replication?
Specific genes are located on specific chromosomes.
Which of the following best describes the conclusion from Morgan's experiments with eye color in fruit flies?
two strands in a double-helix shape, with each strand consisting of an exterior sugar-phosphate backbone and an interior of complementary base pairs that connect the strands
Which of the following best describes the Watson and Crick model of the DNA molecule?
If the sequence of bases on one strand of the DNA molecule is 5′-CCAGT-3′, what is the corresponding complementary sequence of bases on the other strand?
In which model of DNA replication does the parent DNA molecule break into fragments that are copied?
None of the answers are correct. DNA polymerase III synthesizes the new DNA strand during replication.
Which protein is responsible for synthesizing the new DNA strand during replication in prokaryotes?
Replication shortens the lagging strand in eukaryotic DNA.
What is one way that the replication of eukaryotic DNA generally differs from the replication of prokaryotic DNA?
Helicase separates the strands of DNA.
What happens at the origin of replication?
It replaces RNA nucleotides with DNA nucleotides.
What is the role of DNA polymerase I in the replication of E. coli DNA?
They needed to ensure that all newly synthesized DNA would contain the same marker.
Why did Meselson and Stahl transfer E. coli from media containing 15N to media containing 14N?
Which sequence is required for the initiation of transcription in eukaryotes?
Which scientist's research first showed that parents were able to pass heritable factors to their offspring?
Complete the following sentence: The genes that are passed from generation to generation are stored in...
One of the differences between RNA and DNA is the nucleotides each contains. What nucleotide does RNA have that DNA does not?
Complete the following sentence: The monomers that make up a protein are called...
DNA transfers information to RNA.
What is accomplished during transcription?
Mutation of which of these sequences would have no effect on the initiation of transcription?
If the coding strand of DNA has the sequence 5′-CGAGACTTCTGA-3′, what will the sequence of the transcribed RNA be?
Which of the following is important for transcription in prokaryotes?
Which of the following does NOT occur during transcription in bacteria?
If the template strand of DNA has the sequence 3′-TCTAGGACT-5′, what will the sequence of the transcribed RNA be?
Other than the core RNA polymerase, what proteins are required for the initiation of transcription in bacteria?
a polyadenylation signal
Which specific sequence is important for termination in eukaryotes?
a duplicated chromosome
Which of the following would NOT be expected as a result of a point mutation?
Shifts involve damage to bases by free radicals.
Which of the following is NOT true of a tautomeric shift?
the ability of the animal to survive and reproduce with changes to the environment that may kill or reduce the reproductive ability of other members of the population
Which of the following is the best definition of genetic fitness as applied to a mammal?
Which of the following is NOT a type of chromosomal mutation?
hydrogen bonding affinities of the base.
Compete the following sentence: The role of tautomerism in causing mutations relates to the fact that the process ultimately affects the...
frameshift mutations often result in stopping translation.
Complete the following sentence: A frameshift mutation is one of the most severe types of mutations because...
changes in the genomic sequence
Complete the following sentence: Mutation can be described as...
One codon for asparagine has the sequence AAC. What is the sequence of the anticodon on the aminoacyl-tRNA (in the 5′ to 3′ direction)?
All polypeptides start with the same amino acid.
All polypeptides in eukaryotes have which of the following in common?
multiple polypeptides binding together
Which of the following are post-translational modifications?
small ribosomal subunit
Which of the following first binds to the mRNA at the translation initiation site?
How many different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases exist?
They are both due to mutations in a single gene.
How are sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis related?
How many autosomal chromosomes are present in an individual with Klinefelter syndrome?
a modified chromosome 22, produced as a result of chromosome translocation
What is the "Philadelphia chromosome"?
Which of these disorders is not a result of aneuploidy?
All genetic disorders follow Mendelian inheritance patterns.
Which of these statements about genetic disorders is false?
The defective protein coded by the gene cannot transport molecules across the cell membrane.
How does the single genetic defect cause the phenotypes seen in cystic fibrosis?
low glucose, high lactose
Which environmental condition results in maximal expression levels of the lac operon genes?
a mutation in the operator that prevents recognition by the LacI repressor
Which mutation is expected to have a similar effect to a mutation in which the LacI repressor is no longer able to bind to the operator?
lacking a nucleus
Complete the following sentence: Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes by...
The lac operon genes would be expressed continuously.
How would a mutation in the operator of the lac operon that prevented the LacI repressor from binding affect the expression of the genes in the lac operon?
it interacts with another molecule to change the repressor's active site.
Complete the following sentence: The lac repressor is an allosteric molecule because...
to enable specific binding of RNA polymerase to promoters
What is the function of the sigma factor in transcription?
Eukaryotes contain a nucleus, while prokaryotes do not.
How do eukaryotes and prokaryotes differ?
Which of the following reduces the net positive charge of a histone?
Enhancers may be thousands of nucleotides from the gene they are associated with
Which of the following statements is true of an enhancer?
Which of these is NOT a process that may be involved in post-transcriptional regulation?
a physical grouping of genes on different chromosomes that come together to coordinate transcription
What is a transcription factory?
What is the function of the proteasome?
through division and differentiation
How does a single embryonic stem cell give rise to daughter cells that are liver cells and other daughter cells that are skin cells?
Induction affects gene expression in targeted cells.
How does cell-to-cell induction affect cell differentiation?
Stem cells have few permanent changes in their ability to express genes.
What characteristic of stem cells gives them the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types?
They can create an mRNA gradient that determines body layout.
How do maternal effect genes determine cell differentiation?
An anterior-posterior gradient of bicoid mRNA results in an uneven distribution of Bicoid protein that determines the polarity of the developing embryo.
How does expression of the bicoid gene in fruit flies control differentiation of the early fruit fly embryo?
Homeotic gene products initiate the expression of specific sets of genes that regulate morphogenesis and pattern formation.
How do homeotic genes contribute to pattern formation in the early embryo?
Multifactorial diseases are caused by environmental and genetic factors.
Which of the following statements about diseases with multifactorial causes is true?
short tandem repeats
restriction fragment length polymorphisms
In the linkage mapping process for the Human Genome Project, which of the following data types were useful?
Instead of focusing carefully on mapping and ordering, shotgun sequencing relied on a computer program to organize sequenced DNA fragments.
Why was the shotgun sequencing approach a faster way of sequencing the genome than using the three-stage approach?
The term refers to the standardized vocabulary researchers use to annotate genes in databases.
What does the term gene ontology refer to?
the sequence of all of the coding regions of a genome
A new development in individualized medicine is the study of an individual's exome. These studies have revealed a strong genetic basis for some rare diseases. What is the exome?
understanding how microbes interact with hosts
identifying the species in microbial communities
sourcing a disease phenotype to a specific genetic mutation
comparing and contrasting global gene expression in different tissues
Which of the following is a potential application of information from -omics analyses?
Its genome is likely to be smaller than that of most eukaryotes.
The Haemophilus influenzae bacillus is a prokaryotic organism. From this fact, what can you conclude about the size of its genome?
No estimate can be made based on this data.
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has a gene density of about 200 genes/Mb. What would be your best estimate of the gene density of a laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus?
Humans have many introns.
Why do humans typically have lower gene density than bacteria?
Which of these mRNA sequences could be produced by the alternative splicing of a DNA segment with the exon sequence Q R S T?
Complete the following sentence: The largest single component of human DNA consists of...
Organisms that carry out simpler functions may have larger genome sizes than more complex organisms.
What statement concerning genome size and organism characteristics is correct?
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