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site of protein synthesis, where proteins are made; most numerous organelle

How do ribosomes make protein?

protein used within the cell and produced by free floating ribosomes and protein used outside cell produced ribosomes attached to ER

Endoplasmic Reticulum - describe

An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.

Endoplasmic Reticulum - purpose or function

small network of tubes inside a cell that substances move along having 2 types - smooth and rough, internal transport system of the cell, modifies proteins, and synthesizes lipids

What are the 2 types of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)?

smooth and rough

Rough ER

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes., portion of the ER involved in the synthesis of proteins

Smooth ER

ER that has no ribosomes, synthesis of lipids, phospholipids and steroid sex hormones-help detoxify drugs and poisons (liver cells) involves adding hydroxyl groups to drugs to make soluble and easier to flush from body

Golgi apparatus

stack of flattened sacs that receives materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and then pinch off again and the vesicles travel to various parts of the cell


bag of hydrolytic enzymes htt break down certain materials in the cell and digest substances that cells ingest


spaces in the cytoplasm that store food and water, cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

central vacuole

large one associated with plant cells; function as storage, waste disposal, protection, and breakdown of molecules; they help maintain a good water pressure so the cell walls do not wilt in large plant cells

food vacuole

formed as a result of phagocytosis


process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell; CELL EATING; , the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells

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