58 terms

Honors Physics Chapters 20-23

Mr. Schnitzler
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Electrostatics
the study of electric charges that can be collected and held in one place
Neutral
when the positive charge of the nucleus equals the negative charge of the surrounding electrons, then the atom is ___
Insulator
a material through which a charge will not move easily is called an electric ___
Conductor
a material that allows charges to move about easily is called an electric ___
Electroscope
consists of a metal knob connected by a metal stem to two thin, lightweight pieces of metal foil, called leaves
Charging by conduction
charging a neutral body by touching it with a charged body
Charging by induction
Charging an object without direct contact between the object and a charge
Grounding
the process of connecting a body to Earth to eliminate excess charge
Coulomb's Law
the magnitude of the force between charge q(A) and charge q(B), seperated by a distance r, is proportional to the magnitude of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Coulomb (C)
the SI standard unit of charge
Elementary charge
The magnitude of the charge of an electron (1.60e-19)
Electric field
real, actual areas that surround a charged object for which the object may exert a force on another object
Electric field line
a pictoral way for explaining the nature of the electrostatic field. In particular, for showing the direction fo the field when you have like and unlike charges.
Electric potential difference
(V) the work done moving a positive test charge between two points in an electric field divided by the magnitude of the test charge
Volt
one joule per coulomb (J/C=V)
Capacitor
a device that is designed to store charge to be released at a later point in time
Capacitance
the ratio of charge to electric potential difference - measured in Farads (F) - charge is usually small
Electric current
a flow of charged particles
Conventional current
the flow of positive charges
Electric ciruit
a closed loop pathway that allows for current to flow from a power source, through an electrical element, and back to the power sources - current can only flow within a closed loop circuit due ot the fact that it must return to the power source
Current (I)
the amount of charge that moves through an electrical circuit per unit of time - measured 1 coulomb per second - 1C/s=A ampere
Resistance (R)
a measure of the degree to which an electrical element impedes the flow of current within a circuit as it utilizes the current flow in order to operate - measured in Ohms (Ω)
Resistor
an electrical element within a circuit that utilizes current flow and can be wired within a series or parallel connection to other elements;
Parallel connection
an electrical connection between electrical elements in which there are two or more pathways for current to flow
Series Connection
an electrical connection between electrical elements in which there is only one pathway for current to flow
Superconductor
a material with zero resistance -there is no restriction of current in superconductors, so there is no potential difference across them
Series circuit
a closed, loop electrical ciruit with only 1 path for current to flow; the amount of current that flows within the circuit is equal in each element
Equivilent resistance
the sum of all the individual resistances (R=Ra+Rb+Rc+...)
Voltage divider
a series circuit used to produce a voltage source of disired magnitude from a higher-voltage battery
Parallel circuit
a closed, loop electrical circuit in which two or more paths for current to flow exist; Electric Potential Difference (V) is the same for each path
Short circuit
occurs when a circuit with a very low resistance is formed - the low resistance causes the current to be very large, and when appliances are connected in parallel, each additional appliance placed in operation reduces the equivalent resistance in the circuit and increases the current through wires. The additional current might produce enough thermal energy to melt the wiring's insulations, cause a short circuit, or even begin a fire.
Fuse
a short piece of metal that melts when too large a current passes through it
Circuit breaker
an automatic switch that opens when the current reaches a threshold value
Ground-fault interrupter
an electric outlet that prevents injuries (electrocution) because it contains an electric circuit that detects small differences in current cause by an extra current path and opens the circuit
Combination series-parallel circuit
a circuit which includes series and parallel branches
Ammeter
a device that is used ot measure the current in any branch or part of a circuit
Voltmeter
a device used to measure the voltage drop across a poriton of a circuit - connected in parallel with resistor
Coulomb´s Law
F=K(q1+q2)/r^2
Electric charge can not be created or destroyed
True
Charging
The separation of electric charges
Electric Field Strength
E= F(on)q´/q´
Electric Potential Difference
(change in)V=W(on)q´/q´
Electric Field
E=F/q´
Gravitational Force
g=F/m
Electric Potential Difference in a Uniform Field
(change in)V=Ed
Capacitance Equation
C=q/(change in)V
Power
P=IV, P=(I^2)(R), P=(V^2)/(R)
Resistance
R=V/I
Current
I=V/R
R(eq) IN SERIES
R=R1+R3.....
R(eq) IN PARALLEL
1/R=1/R1+1/R2...
Potential Difference
A condition that must exist between two points in a conductor in order to maintain a flow of charge
Equations with time
I=q/t
Current in SERIES
I=I1=I2=I3....(EQUAL)
Current in Parallel
I=I1+I2+I3....(ADD)
Voltage in SERIES
V=V1+V2+V3...(ADD)
Voltage in PARALLEL
V=V1=V2=V3...(EQUAL)
Unit for Resistance
OHMS
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