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NIC written

STUDY
PLAY
CONFIDENTIALITY
Tenet: Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication. GP: Interpreters hold a position of trust in their role as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and is essential to protecting all involved.
PROFESSIONALISM
Tenet: Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation. GP: Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession of interpreting as well as in the American Deaf community.
CONDUCT
Tenet: Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation. GP: Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. They avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
RESPECT FOR CONSUMERS
Tenet: Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers. GP: Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters and interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
RESPECT FOR COLLEAGUES
Tenet: Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns and students of the profession. GP: Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to colleagues reflects upon the profession in general.
BUSINESS PRACTICES
Tenet: Interpreters maintain ethical business practices. GP: Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise. Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Tenet: Interpreters engage in professional development. GP: Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreting competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
Which feature is found in ASL but not in English?
Object-verb agreement
From a cultural perspective, what is the core Deaf community most appropriately thought of as?
A linguistic minority group.
Which setting is LEAST likely that a Deaf person would be working as an interpreter?
In a mainstream classroom.
What are most of the content adjustments that interpreters make?
Linguistic or cultural.
Why did mainstreaming become widespread in the U.S.?
Primarily because of the passage of Public Law 94-142.
True or False: Hearing interpreters who are not CODAs can become members of the core Deaf culture by the process of acculturation.
False
When people adjust their language and the way they talk based on whom they are speaking to, what are they shifting?
Register.
What is the one protection available to interpreters from malpractice suits that result from misinterpretations that cause harm?
Liability insurance.
If an interpreter accepts an assignment in another state and a different region, what is NOT appropriate to do?
Use only the accepted regional signs from the interpreter's area.
What is the process of transmitting information from a sign of English-like signing to spoken English called?
Transliteration.
What is not included in the theory of interpretation as cultural and linguistic mediation?
Providing Deaf people with adequate language models.
Which organization has as its main objective the providing of information about hearing loss, communication, assistive listening devices, and communication strategies for oral Deaf persons?
SHHH
What is NOT a dynamic of hearing/Deaf cross-cultural interactions?
Acoustically-oriented/silence-oriented
What is easier for most spoken languages interpreters to interpret from?
From their B language into their A language.
What is the term that refers to philosophies underlying the education of Deaf and hard-of-hearing students that support communication in any way possible?
Total communication
What is the primary reason hearing people have difficulty becoming fluent in ASL?
It is difficult to gain sufficient exposure to Deaf people using ASL.
What reason would an African-American Deaf person not use Southern Black signs?
He or she attended a mainstreamed school with African-American instructors.
Which of the following is most valued in a low-context culture?
Individuality
Historically, how has Deaf culture been passed from one generation to another?
Primarily at residential schools.
What is considered a universal form of communication?
Mime
What is the best cue that a Deaf audience has failed to comprehend a voice-to-sign interpretation?
Confused copying of a sign
What does Public Law 94-142 mandate?
To the extent possible, Deaf children should be educated in the least restrictive environment.
What has been shown to correlate most highly with the rate of occurrence of interpretation miscues?
Processing time
Deaf audience members leave a lecture understanding all of the facts given by the lecturer. Their impression is that she was ill-prepared and distant, when in fact she was highly prepared and genuinely warm. The interpreter erred in conveying what element of the presentation?
Affect
What is the major reason Deaf people value residential schools?
Residential schools are where social identity and language competence are developed.
An interpreter is in a hospital to interpret for a child with injuries consistent with child abuse. On four other occasions, the interpreter has been in other hospitals while the same child was there for similar injuries but with different doctors. What should the interpreter do?
Contact the appropriate authorities.
When is simultaneous interpretation or transliteration most approprate for?
When the interpreter and consumers are familiar with the subject.
Why were systems for manually representing English developed?
Primarily to teach English to Deaf children.
What is the key difference between interpreters and translators?
The source language message is 'permanently available' to translators.
What is the most important way in which interpreting for people who are Deaf/Blind differs from interpreting for people who are Deaf?
With Deaf/Blind persons the interpreter needs to include actual visual information.
What does Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 include?
Qualified disabled individuals cannot be discriminated against by programs receiving federal funding.
What type of signing is similar to ASL?
Gestural/Visual Vernacular.
What should the lighting be during an interpretation for a large audience?
It should come from more than one angle.
What is the interpreter's area of expertise if the interpreter is subpoenaed as an expert witness in court?
Communication issues and cross-cultural mediation.
What organization has the greatest interest in phone relay services.
Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc.
When is a Deaf relay interpreter most likely to be used?
When the Deaf consumer uses a foreign sign language.
True or false: An effective transliteration may incorporate features of ASL that enhance intelligibility.
True
What should the intepreter do when interpreting for a live television program?
Offer to provide assistance regarding interpreter placement.
What is the most effective way for interpreters to present complex material?
To interpret in a more consecutive mode.
During a meeting attended by a Deaf person and several hearing persons, two of the hearing participants carry on a private conversation that interferes with the interpreter's ability to continue. What is the most appropriate action for the interpreter to do?
Inform the two hearing persons that the interpreter cannot hear the speaker.
True or False: Interpretation involves competence in at least two languages.
True
What is the primary reason that a Deaf/Blind consumer would use a combination of communication methods?
To avoid fatigue.
A Deaf consumer who facilitates group discussions often finds it difficult to know when it is appropriate to interject comments. What is the best way for the interpreter to address this concern?
Consult with the Deaf consumer to establish a plan to facilitate participation.
What is the use of hand shapes to represent manner and place of articulation in order to reduce ambuguities in speechreading called?
Cued speech.
To sociolinguists, what is the intimate register of discourse characterized by?
Reliance on information that is left implicit.
What is the process of rendering a message from one written language to another written language called?
Translation.
When can successful consecutive interpreting be used?
When all parties agree to use this method.
At a small staff meeting where there is one Deaf employee, the Deaf employee signs that he has not completed a work asignment. The interpreter misses the negation and voices that the assignment has been completed. Upon realizing the error, the interpreter voices to the hearing staff that a mistake has been made and corrects the error. What is the more appropriate way to handle this situation?
Inform both the Deaf and hearing participants that an interpreter error was made and correct the error.
True or False: The noun is signed using a smaller double movement in a noun-verb pair in ASL.
True.
What should the interpreter do when called upon to work with a Deaf person with limited language competence?
Have available an array of visual aids.
What is one of the goals of conflict resolution?
To increase sensitivity to similarity and common interests while minimizing differences.
What is most helpful in intepreting complex concepts into ASL?
Visualization.
What is the focus of the cultural/humanistic view of Deaf people?
Person rather than the deafness.
At the end of a medical appointment, a Latino Deaf patient is given a card with the date "9/10/98" for the next scheduled appointment. The interpreter is aware that Latin countries usually write the date as "day/month/year" and that this different notation may lead to confusion. What is the most appropriate way for the interpreter to handle this situation?
Sight interpret the written information.
According to Title IV (Telecommunications) of the ADA, what must telephone companies provide for Deaf individuals?
Both local and long distance relay services 24 hours a day.
What is the term for the use of two languages or of two varieties of the same language in a community in which one has a higher status called?
Diglossia.
True or False: An effective English-to-sign interpretation always adapts to audience preference.
True.
How can an interpreter be best prepared for interpreting a lecture?
By learning something about the goal of the speaker.
Since Deaf people tend to share knowledge and experiences that may be unfamiliar to a hearing audience, what should the interpreteter who is working from ASL to English do?
Present a meaningful interpretation of cultural-specific material.
What factor is given the least consideration by sign language transliterators?
Regional dialects.
Approximately what percentage of Deaf and hard-of-hearing children have hearing parents?
85-95%
The scheduler at an interpreter referral agency needs to book interpreters for three events: a fundraiser for the Gay Men's Health Crisis, a conference on male sexual dysfunction, and the Synod of Catholic Bishops. Which interpreter attribute does not need to be considered: religious, gender, age, or sexual orientation?
Age.
What is an English word that approximates the most common meaning of ASL sign called?
Gloss.
What is least indicative of a register: setting, subject matter, interpreter's attire, or speaker's attire?
Speaker's attire
While working, the interpreter is asked by one of the hearing participants how long it took to beome an interpreter. Without responding, the interpreter directs this question to the Deaf person. Which model is the interpreter functioning under?
Conduit model.
What fact about a Deaf person would provide you with the LEAST information about how he or she is likely to sign?
The hearing status of his or her children.
When a message is rendered from English to ASL, what is the most accurate description of the communication process?
Voice-to-sign interpreting.
True or False: Total Communication is a method of oralism used to teach language.
False.
What linguistic feature is found in English but not in ASL?
Gender distinctions in the pronoun system.
True or False: An interpreter can lose their certification if he or she does not join an affiliate chapter.
False.
What was the name of the insurance company that was formed by the Deaf community in 1901?
National Fraternal Society of the Deaf.
True or False: The Tadoma method, palm writing and tactile fingerspelling and signing are methods commonly used for communication with Deaf/Blind people.
True.
At an Individual Education Program (IEP) meeting, a Deaf student becomes upset with proposed goals and objectives that the team is suggesting for her. The Deaf student directs her anger at the interpreter. What is the psychological term for the student's behavior called?
Transference.
What is the community-based, non-profit organization that works specifically with African-American Deaf persons to advocate their rights?
BDA
"Qualified interpreter means an interpreter who is able to interpret effectively, accurately, and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary." Where is this statement contained?
The ADA (regulations).
What does ADA stand for and what year was it passed?
Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990
What are the 3 levels of the NIC
Certified, Advanced, and Mastered
CI
Certificate of Interpretation
CT
Certificate of Transliteration
OTC
Oral Transliteration Certificate
SC: L
Specialist Certificate: Legal
CLIP-R
Conditional Legal Interpreting Permit-Relay
MCSC
Master Comprehensive Skills Certificate
CSC
Comprehensive Skills Certificate
OIC
Oral Interpreting Certificate
RSC
Reverse Skills Certificate
NAD: Level III
National Association of the Deaf - Generalist
NAD: Level IV
National Association of the Deaf - Advanced
NAD: Level V
National Association of the Deaf - Master
IC
Interpretation Certificate
TC
Transliteration Certificate
ACCI
American Consortium of Certified Interpreters
SC:PA
Specialist Certificate: Performance Arts
CLIP
Conditional Legal Interpreting Permit
EIPA
Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment
CEU
Continuing Education Units
CMP
Certification Maintenance Program
ACET
Associate Continuing Education Tracking
-Participation in ACET allows RID to track your completion of CEUs for you.
Who can become an CMP approved sponsor?
The PDC is responsible for approving applications for organizations, agencies, and individuals to become approved sponsors.
PDC
Professional Development Committee
What is the approved sponsors role?
To provide appropriate educational opportunities to interpreters. Those opportunities are pre-approved to provide CEUs
When did CMP begin operation?
July 1, 1994
What are the requirements for obtaining CEUs?
All members who are certified interpreters are required to complete 8.0 CEUs (80 contact hours) within four years.
6.0 CEUs must be professional studies content
2.0 CEUs can be general studies
PINRA
Participant-Initiated Non-RID Activities
Examples: audited college course, organizational conventions, community education, etc.
CIT
Conference of Interpreter Trainers-the professional organization of interpreter educators
Mano a Mano
National Organization of interpreters who work in Spanish-Influenced settings
NAOBI
National Alliance of Black Interpreters, INc.
AIIC
The International Association of Conference Interpreters (the only worldwide association for conference interpreters)
WASLI
World Association of Sign Language Interpreters
CART
Communication Access Realtime Translation
AADB
American Association of the Deaf-Blind
COAT
Coalition of Organizations for Accessible Technology
IDC
Intertribal Deaf Council (similar to native american organizations)
NADC
National Asian Deaf Congress
NBDA
National Black Deaf Advocates
WFD
World Federation of the Deaf
DCMP
Described and Captioned Media Program-equal access to media. DCMP acts as a captioning info and training center
NIDCD
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders: focused on medical information and research.
PAH, MD
Promoting Awareness in Healthcare, Medical and Deaf
NDRN
National Disability Rights Network
DPA
Disabled People's Association
Who is Alice Cogswell
The 9 year old girl neighbor of Gallaudets that inspired Gallaudet to educate deaf people.
Who accompanied Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet back to America?
Laurent Clerc
What year did ASD open?
American School for the Deaf opened in 1817.
In what year, and by whom, was the now Gallaudet University founded?
Thomas Gallaudet's son, Edward founded what was then called "The National Deaf-Mute College" in 1864
National Theatre for the Deaf was established in what year?
1967
Explain what the Milan Conference is and what year it took place.
September 6-11, 1880 an innational conference of Deaf educators was held. A declaration was made that oral education was better than any manual sign language form of education so they outlawed the use of sign language in education.
What year did Deaf President Now take place?
March 1988
What was the name of the hearing president that was forced to resign after DPN and the name of the president who was later welcomed?
Elizabeth A. Zinswer resigned a few days after the protests began and by the end of the week Dr. I. King Jordan became Gallaudet's first Deaf president.
Which tenet address multiple roles in interpreting?
Tenet 3.3 guides interpreters to avoid role conflicts, "avoid performing dual or conflicting roles in multidisciplinary or other settings."
What is the number one determining factor in deciding a team of interpreters is needed?
The difficulty of the assignment
What is RSI?
Repetitive Strain Injury is a stress-related, cumulative type of injury resulting from repetitive movements.
RSIs are also often referred to as what?
cumulative trauma disorder, muscle-skeletal disorder, repetitive motion injuries, tennis elbow, and mouse thumb
The most common early symptoms of RSI for interpreters are what?
Pain, stiffness, numbness, and burning starting in the neck and often going down into the arm and hands.
NIEC
National Interpreter Education Center
Project TIEM
Hosted by NIEC, project Teaching INterpreting Educators and Mentors provides a list of resources for how to contact a mentor as well as provide support for what that mentorship relationship should look like.
ADA was enacted in which year?
1990
What section of the ADA are interpreters addressed?
Under Title III.V Interpreters are considered a type of auxiliary aid that is required to be provided for communication with any individuals with hearing impairments.
CCIE
Commission on Collegiate Interpreter Education: was established to promote professionalism by provided accreditation to ITPs
NCIEC
National Consortium of Interpreter Education Centers
ASLTA
American Sign Language Teachers Association
NTS
National Testing System (for RID)
NCI
National Council on Interpreting
-formed by NAD and RID to Develop the National Interpreter Certification exam.
In what year was RID established and why was it founded then?
June 14-17 in 1964 in Muncie Indiana a workshop was held to bring more structure and foundation to the training of interpreters.
What year did RID change its name, and why?
Many of the participants who were at the original workshop felt that it was time to formalize interpreting as a profession an. So after a name change to RID they were incorporated in 1972
CPC Tenet 1.0
Interpreters adhere to standards of CONFIDENTIAL communication
Tenet 1.0 Guiding Principle
"Interpreters hold position of trust in their role as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and is essential to protecting all involved."
CPC Tenet 2.0
Interpreters possess the PROFFESSIONAL skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
Tenet 2.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession of interpreting as well as in the American Deaf community. Interpreters accept assignments using discretion with regard to skill, communication mode, setting, consumer needs. Terps possess knowledge of American Deaf culture and deafness-related resources.
CPC Tenet 3.0
Interpreters CONDUCT themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation
Tenet 3.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. They avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
CPC Tenet 4.0
Interpreters demonstrate RESPECT FOR CONSUMERS.
Tenet 4.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters an interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
CPC Tenet 5.0
Interpreters demonstrate RESPECT FOR COLLEAGUES, INTERNS AND STUDENTS within the profession.
Tenet 5.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to a colleague reflects upon the profession in general.
CPC Tenet 6.0
Interpreters maintain ethical BUSINESS PRACTICES.
Tenet 6.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise. Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
CPC Tenet 7.0
Interpreters engage in PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Tenet 7.0 Guiding Principle
Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreting competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
Linguistics
The scientific study of a language system
Syntax
Sentence Structure/the study of the way in which sentences are constructed/how sentences are put together
Semantics
Meaning/the study of the relationship between signs and symbols and what they represent, the meaning of signs and symbols in a language.
Morphology
Word Formation/the study of how a language uses smaller units to build larger units
Phonetics
Sound production/transmission, how they are articulated and perceived.
Phonology
Sound Patterns/rules
Prosody (in english)
The rhythm of speech with pauses and phraseology, as well as certain auditory intonation patterns.
Does ASL or English use passive voice often?
English! ASL tends to use a lot of active voice.
Noun/Verb Modifiers describes:
-the relationship of a person/place/thing;-what a person/place/thing looks like;-how a person/place/thing moves.
In English, the relationship of a person/place/thing to another person/place/thing is spoken how?
With prepositions and prepositional phrases
In ASL, the relationship of a person/place/thing to another person/place/thing is conveyed how?
With the use of Classifiers and Directional Verbs
How do ASL and English differ in the way they describe a person/place/thing?
English tends to use vocal intonation and spoken adjectives. -ASL uses a combination of signed adjectives as well as a special set of classifiers called SASSes (size and shape classifiers)
Sentences (linguistic definitino)
made up of combined clauses that are combined morphemes
Pragmatic use of language
the way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterances within the given context.
Equivocal Language
the deliberate use of words, signs or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way in order to mislead someone.shape classifiers)
Euphemistic language
the use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt descriptive ones. (ex. "He has gone to a better place" oppose to saying "He died")
What are the different types of "Powerless forms of language"?
Hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, polite forms, tag questions and "up talk", disclaimers.
Metathesis
when a part of the segment of a sign changes place. -(ex. DEAF)
Grammar
Rules that vary from language to language
Phonemes
symbols made up of discreet, meaningless parts
Morphemes
combined phonemes, formed into meaningful parts
What is a phoneme in English? Examples?
different sounds that speakers make that are part of the language, but have no meaning. "d", "a"
What aspect of ASL would be considered a phoneme? Examples?
handshape, location, palm, orientation, movement, and non-manual markers-for ex. a Hand out with palm down (has no meaning)
Explain and give an example of what a morpheme is in English.
words and other units that have meaning
-fr example the affix "s"
-"s" is a phoneme, but when you add it to "car" then "cars" is a morpheme because it changed the meaning of the word
Explain and give an example of what a morpheme looks like in ASL.
individual signs as well as other features such as numeral incorporation that can modify the meaning of a basic sign.
ex. "Hand out with palm down" has no meaning and "CL:3" doesn't have meaning by itself either, but if we were to sign CL:3 underneath the palm, then the sign becomes GARAGE and is now amorpheme
Relay Interpreting
When an interpreter relies on the interpreted message of another interpreter, like with a CDI or in multi-lingual teams
What are factors that affect the interpreting process?
interpersonal skills, interpreters as "human beings", public speaking, cross-cultural communication, advocacy
What are some examples of when situational factors make cultural adjustments NOT necessary?
Parallelism, deaf culture identity, degree of biculturism
Parallelism
the transaction is the same in both cultures
Another term for "lag time"
decalage,
MLS
Minimal Language Skills
Lexical category: Major
words/signs functioning as nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs
Lexical category: Minor
determiners, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns
When was the original Code of Ethics established and what was its tone?
It established in 1964 but was very religious influenced because the "professionals" at the time were really volunteering alot
When did the first revision to the Code of ethics happen and what was included?
In 1965 the Code of Ethics was changed completely. It had 12 articles and imposed confidentiality for the first time.
In the CPC "Function of the Guiding Principles" what are the obligations of every interpreter and the driving force behind those guiding principles.
It is the obligation of every interpreter to
1.exercise judgement
2.employ critical thinking
3.reflect on past actions
The driving force behind those principles is the notion that the interpreter will do no harm.
Purpose of the CPC
1. establish framework for appropriate behavior
2. protects interpreters and defends all participants' rights who are involved
3. Provides guidelines and clarification of the role
4. allows for consistence within in the field, supporting predictability of professional behavior
What are the laws that supersede the CPC?
ALL local, state and federal laws supersedes the code. This includes IDEA, Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, and ADA
In what category does the interpreter fall under in the IDEA?
Interpreters are under "Related service providers", which makes them an active part of the consumers IEP. Federal government mandates that Interpreters are involved in the education plan of deaf students.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act provides what services?
After a student becomes 22, they no longer qualify for services under IDEA so 504 becomes responsible for establishing that the needs for services are still there (ex. job training, or college applications, etc.) and then providing them with those services.
Entitlement vs. Eligibility
IDEA requires by law that services be provided. So until the age of 22 consumers are entitled to these services. Section 504 is no longer required to provide services but CAN depending on wether or not the consumer is eligible.
Culture
"the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior tat depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations..."
Community
"a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society
Proxemics
study of social and personal space
Paralinguistic
study of the way something is said, including intonation, speech rate, use of silence, etc.
Kinesics
study of body motions such as gestures, eye gaze, facial expression
Values
Each culture has its own set which influences kinesics, paralinguistics, and proxemics.
Low context culture
low dependence on context therefore less sub-textual information needs to be explained to be understood
High context cultures
high dependence on context and if you do not have the information you may not understand conversations
What are 3 things a terp should know how to handle when in various environments of deaf culture?
1. Introductions
2. Exits
3. Interruptions
The majority of interpreting is done in what register?
Consultative
Role of Mediator
Someone in "constant control of the mediation session to ensure that it stays focused."
Why is Interpreter in the role of a mediator difficult?
-power issues
-taking over,
-influencing other parties due to our cultural perspectives
Perceived allegiace
Alliance with consumer through cultural/language/family background. Spoken language interpreters often have an inherint trust because of this, but sign language interpreters will never have the inherint trust
What are 5 major aspects when it comes to Ethics?
Trust, Being discreet, accuracy, proficiency, and the ability to be impartial
What are some examples of possible unintentional audism within RID?
-Testing, language use at conferences, passing of EIPA
Helper Philosophy
Interpreter as a care-taker. First philosophy of RID, back in 1964
Machine (Conduit) Philosophy
Interpreters began to approach their work in a strict rigid manner, denying that their presence had impact on the dynamic of the situation. Came after trying to get change the helper philosophy mindset
Communication Facilitation Philosphy
Shift towards this in the 70s because interpreters started to realize the importance of language and the environmental settings that were involved in situations. They begun being more mindful of visual noise and started to manage the environmental factors of the interpretation also
Bi-lingual/Bi-cultural Philosophy of Interpretation
Probably most common in the field now.
Names of People with proccess of interpreting models
kitano, pradis, seleskovitch, moser-mercer, ingram, gerver
When did RID begin evaluation of interpreters?
1972
Tenet 1.0
Confidentiality
Tenet 2.0
Professionalism
Tenet 3.0
Conduct
Tenet 4.0
Respect for Consumers
Tenet 5.0
Respect for Colleagues
Tenet 6.0
Business Practices
Tenet 7.0
Professional Development
1.1
Share information confidentially and as needed
1.2
Manage information to maintain confidentiality
1.3
Inform consumers of mandated disclosure
2.1
Provide service regardless of any factor
2.2
Assess consumer needs
2.3
Render message faithfully
2.4
Request support when needed
2.5
Don't counsel or give opinions
2.6
Caution when providing information or referrals
3.1
Consult regarding the interpreting situation
3.2
Decline assignments when not competent
3.3
Avoid dual or conflicting roles
3.4
Comply with workplace codes of conduct
3.5
Be unobtrusive with proper attire
3.6
No drugs or alcohol
3.7
Disclose conflicts of interest
3.8
Avoid conflicts of interest that interfere with services
3.9
Don't use private information for personal gain
3.10
Don't use private information to benefit affiliations
4.1
Consider consumer requests
4.2
Always be professional
4.3
Obtain consent for interns from the client
4.4
Communication access and equality
5.1
Maintain civility with colleagues
5.2
Work cooperatively through consultation
5.3
Privately discuss and resolve breaches
5.4
Assist and encourage colleagues
5.5
Obtain consent for interns from colleagues
6.1
Accurately represent qualifications
6.2
Honor professional commitments
6.3
Promote conditions conducive to interpreting
6.4
Inform when delayed
6.5
Decline if conditions conducive to interpreting don't exist
6.6
Don't harass or coerce
6.7
Fair and reasonable pro bono services
6.8
Fair and reasonable fees for services
7.1
Increase knowledge and strengthen skills
7.2
Keep abreast of laws and policies
The meaning of a word or sentence depends upon the aspects of the context in which it its used. Example: time, place, relationship with other person etc.
Pragmatics
The meaningful arrangement of words into grammatically correct phrases or sentences.
Syntax
Visual/Spacial modality fosters use of spatial referencing and restricts use of functional elements-utterances made up primarily of content elements.
ASL Modality
The study of the meaning of words and sentences and the way in which languages structure meaning.
Semantics
The absolute smallest unit of language that can change the meaning of a word/sign. English:sound. ASL/5 parameters of a sign.
Phoneme
If a two-handed sign is not symmetrical, then one of the hands must be passive (either hold still or be moved by the active hand).
Passive Hand Condition
Smallest unit of meaningful language.
Morpheme
Words/Signs that have meaning by themselves and don't need to be attached to another word to have meaning.
Free Morpheme
Morpheme that must be attached to another morpheme to have meaning.
Bound Morpheme
A word or sign.
Lexical Item
A generic term to designate a whole class. Colors include red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple etc.
Superordinates
An instance of language, the message.
Discourse
Hand-shape, Location, Movement, Palm Orientation, and Non-manual signals.
5 Parameters of Sign
Movement determines which concept is meant. The way in which nouns and verbs are related. Example: SIT and CHAIR
Derivational Morphemes
If both hands move independently, then both hands must have the same hand-shape, location and the same or alternating movements.
Symmetry Condition
If a two-handed sign has two different hand-shapes, then the hand-shape of the passive hand is restricted to B,A,S,C,O,1 or 5.
Dominance Condition
Auditory/vocal modality requires use of content and functional elements to create a proper rhythm.
English Modality
Subject-Verb-Oject (SVO). Linear rather than simultaneous.
English Grammatical Structure.
Verbs change forms (conjugated) to mark present, past or future tense (walk, walkING, walkS, walkED).
English Time/Tense Markers
Adds words to indicate the affirmation or negation (ex: I will NOT go). Affirmation is usually embedded in the verb, although a lexical item may be added for emphasis or clarity.
English Negation/Affirmation
Signer adds a non-manual marker (head nodding "yes" or shaking "no") as the utterance is signed. In formal register, the non-manual marker must be accompanied wit a signed affirmation/negation, optional in consultative and informal registers.
ASL Negation/Affirmation
Generally conveyed visually via facial markers and sign modulations, although affect signs may be signed with accompanying facial markers.
ASL Affect Markers
Uses prepositions, most often occur before the noun: Under, beneath, behind, above etc.
English Noun/Verb Modifier (Describing relationship of noun to another noun)
Adjectives are usually added - usually preceding the noun.
English Noun/Verb Modifier (Description of a noun)
Time marker comes early in the utterance and conjugates all following verbs until a new time marker is noted.
English Affect Markers
Generally conveyed via words with appropriate vocal inflection.
ASL Time/Tense
Topic-Prone; imbedded information allows for greater degree of simultaneous conveyance of information.
ASL Grammatical Structure
Number-specific (we-two, they-five) gender neutral (index, pointing)
ASL Pronouns
A) Uses classifiers although prepositions are sometimes signed for the emphasis. B) Some verbs (known as directional verbs) incorporate the actor and the recipient of the action because of the way the verb moves through space.
ASL Noun/Verb Modifier (Describing relationship of noun to another noun)
Used frequently, marked by vocal intonation and specific group of lexical items (if/then) and the "if" portion of a conditional statement may either precede or follow the consequence.
English Conditional
The set of words known by an individual or group.
Lexicon
Exchange that takes place between individuals who, because of a common history, are able to communicate without the use of complex sentences and even without the use of language in certain cases (ex. friends, spouses or partners)
Intimate Linguistic Register
Turn-taking and interaction, Complexity/completeness of sentence structure, Choice of vocabulary, Volume of speech/size of signs, Rate and Clarity of speech/signs, Speaker goals, Use of fillers and hesitations and allowable topics of discussion.
Each register has specific characteristics and unwritten rules which determine
Found in situations where on of the individuals involved in the interchange has "expert" status or enhanced command of the topic; utterances are often marked with "jargon" (ex.doctor/patient or lawyer/client)
Consultative Register
A)Classifiers known as shape and size specifiers (SASSes). B) Sometimes signed adjectives are used in combination with SASSes.
ASL Noun/Verb Modifier (Description of a noun)
A text that is the same each time it is stated (Ex: the Lord's Prayer, the national anthem, a Robert Frost poem).
Frozen Linguistic Register
Multiple numbering systems for various topic areas.
ASL Numbers
The study of the sound system of language. How particular sounds used in each language form an integrated system for encoding the information and how such systems differ from one language to another.
Phonology
Adverbs sometimes signed but more frequently conveys this information this information by modifying the way the verb is produced and by using specific non-manual markers which indicate adverbial information.
ASL Noun/Verb Modifier (Describing how something moves)
Adverbs are added to the verb; Slowly, quickly, rapidly etc.
English Noun/Verb Modifier (Describing how something moves)
Gender-specific (specific in third person singular, she/her or he/him) and number-neutral (we, they-no indication of how many people make up the group).
English Pronouns
How language and its use is shaped by a society or culture.
Sociolinguistics
Two numbering systems: Cardinal and ordinal
English Numbers
Passive voice is used frequently, particularly in upper-consultative and formal registers.
English Voice
Uses primarily active voice.
ASL voice
Marked by a sustained brow raise and head shift, precede the result.
ASL Conditionals
Frozen, formal, consultative, informal and intimate.
Linguistic Registers
Generally found in situations where there is one speaker (at a time) and a group of listeners; virtually no turn-taking; marked by physical or psychological distance (Church sermon or class lecture)
Formal Linguistic Register
Occurs in situations where the participants tend to have equal status; turn-taking is fluid and sentences are slightly truncated resulting in a more rapid rate of speech/signs, fragments and run-on sentences (ex. co-workers, neighbors or students).
Informal Linguistic Register
The study of the structure and form of words- including inflation, derivation and the formation of compounds.
Morphology
When language can be understood in several ways.
Ambiguous Language
Mime
Universal form of communication
Why were manually represented English systems created?
English sign systems were created to teach d/Deaf children English
What is the focus of the cultural/humanistic view of Deaf people?
Focus is on the person, not the deafness
What does Title 5 of the ADA require telecommunications companies to do?
Provide local and long distance relay service 24/7
Is there a gender distinction within the pronoun system in ASL?
NO
True or False...Object-Verb agreement is found in ASL but NOT in English?
True
Why do people struggle with ASL proficiency?
It is difficult to gain exposure to Deaf people using ASL.
What is the main value in a LOW-CONTEXT culture?
Individuality
What company has the greatest interest in phone relay services?
Telecommunications for the Deaf Inc.
In noun-verb pairs in ASL, how is a noun signed?
A noun is signed using a smaller double movement
What is diglossia?
The use of two languages or two varieties of the same language in a community in which one has a higher status than the other.
What do you call an English word that has the close approximate meaning to an ASL sign?
A gloss
When people adjust their language and the way that they are talking based on whom they are speaking to.
Shifting register
The best cue that a Deaf audience has misunderstood the English-to-ASL interpretation.
Confused copying of a sign.
What has been showed to correlate most with the rate of occurrences in interpretation miscues?
Process time
Subpoenaed interpreters are expert witnesses in court with an expertise in what?
Communication issues and cross-cultural mediation
Name of the RID monthly newsletter.
The Views
Historically, what is the primary way that ASL and Deaf Culture has been passed from generation to generation?
Residential schools/folklore
From a cultural perspective, the core of the Deaf community is most appropriately thought of as a(n)...
Linguistic Minority Group
What type of content adjustments do interpreters most frequently make?
cultural (or linguistic at times)
Define Community
A group of individuals who share common characteristics, goals and interests
The Gish Model equates the theme with what?
The main idea
Colonomos model uses the term "decoding" to mean what?
Dropping Form
What was the first interpreting model used in the field?
Helper
Department of Justice definition of qualified interpreter...
An interpreter who is able to interpret effectively, accurately and impartially both receptively and expressively using any necessary vocabulary.
William Stokoe's contribution to Deaf Culture...
First to systematically analyze ASL.
What does a pidgin language result from?
Interaction of two speech communities.
What is a "high context culture"?
A high context culture is one where most of the information lies either in the physical context or within the people who are part of the interaction.
What is reverse interpreting?
Old term used for voice interpreting or sign-to-voice interpreting (ASL-to-English)
What is chuchotage and what is is used for?
Whisper interpreting. This type of interpreting is used for the benefit of a small group.
What is sight translation?
Sight translation is when an interpreter reads a text in another language and provides a translation in a different language.
Name the 5 titles of the ADA...
1 - Employment
2 - Public Service
3 - Public Accommodations
4 - Telecommunications
5 - Miscellaneous
What is the difference between section 504 and the ADA?
Section 504 applies only to institutions receiving federal financial assistance. The ADA covers most establishments whether private or public.
Name the first ever organization of interpreters.
Texas Society of Interpreters for the Deaf
What is Gestuno?
An international sign language
ICED
International Congress on the Education of the Deaf
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act
ALDA
Association of Late-Deafened Adults
AVLIC
Association for Visual Language Interpreters of Canada
NTID
National Technical Institute for the Deaf
QA and QAP
Quality Assurance/Quality Assurance Program
PSE
Pidgin Sign English
NTD
National Theatre of the Deaf
ASHLA
American Speech, Hearing and Language Association
MCE
Manually Coded English
See1/See2
SEE1: Seeing Essential English
SEE2: Signed Exact English
AADB
American Association of the Deaf and Blind
ASLTA
American Sign Language Teachers Association
AGBAD
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf
WFD
World Federation of the Deaf
List the 6 parts of a message.
1 - Content
2 - Function
3 - Register
4 - Affect
5 - Contextual Force
6 - Metanotative Qualities
Percentage of d/Deaf people with hearing parents.
90%
Mr. Cogswell is most noted for what?
Funding the trip for T.H. Gallaudet from Europe to learn educational methods for teaching the d/Deaf.
Who was the director of the Paris School for the Deaf? Who were the two most promising students?
Director: Sicard
Students: Jean Massieau and Laurent Clerc
Aristotle's famous quote about Deaf
"Those who cannot speak are those who cannot think."
Name of the 1880 European conference that impacted Deaf education and its impact.
Milan Conference....lead to the popularization of the oral method and the banning of sign language in the classroom.
Person who became most famous after the Milan Conference and why?
Alexander Graham Bell...Fluent in sign language but a strong proponent of oral language and eugenics.
What year was the first NAD convention?
1880
Where was the first school for the deaf/blind located & what year did it open?
Virginia
1839
What was Abraham Lincoln's contribution to the deaf community during the Civil War?
He signed the charter to open the first deaf college.
Name the first "Deaf/Mute College" and the year it was opened.
Gallaudet
Opened in 1884
In 1817, Gallaudet and Clerc stressed what method of communication? Why? Was it successful?
Methodological (Signed English) created by Abbe Charles Del' eppe to teach English grammar. This method failed...they switched to ASL.