AP World History Chapter 12 Vocab
Terms in this set (91)
Frankish king who became catholic
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. His palace was at Aachen in central Europe
the only woman to rule China in her own name, expanded the empire and supported Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.
10th century ruler who became emperor of the German states through close ties with the Catholic church
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
A Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul.
a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751 to 987
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor who had little control over the hundreds of princes who elected him. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
Measures competences (can he do it), not abilities)
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
A member of a Viking people who raided and then settled in the French province later known as Normandy, and who invaded England in 1066
An Italian trading city on the Ariatic Sea, agreed to help the Byzantines' effort to regain the lands in return for trading privileges in Constantinople.
Battle of Tours
(732 CE) European victory over Muslims. It halted Muslim movement into Western Europe.
An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
lay investiture controversy
Lay (non-clergy) civil authorities select and "invest" bishops & clerics with their symbols of office
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of Englad was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
England's chief law-making body. It was a key institution in the development of representative democracy as it provided some voice and recognition of the rights and interests of various groups in society. It was involved in creating taxes and passing laws. It is similar to our Congress in the United States (which passes laws).
House of Lords
House of parliament made of up barons and clergy
House of Commons
England's lower house in Parliament
Hundred Years' War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
Jerusalem and parts of the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
"Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ"; Secretive group built to protect pilgrims on the road to the Holy Land; oldest of the Western Christian military orders
Name this medieval crusading order of German knights.
A person of high rank who owned land but owed loyalty to his king
lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity
Warriors who fought on horseback
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
A person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
The proprietor of the Blue Boar, an inn in Pip's village.
The successors of the Apostles
Head of the Roman Catholic Church
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Merchant class town dwellers
Extraordinary ministers of communion
Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary
The common speech of the masses. They were the alternative to Latin, the language of the learned. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of vernacular literature, though Latin remained the universal tongue of scholarship, politics, and the Church in Western Europe until after the Middle Ages and the Reformation.
University of Paris
University that was a combination of three former schools and combined each individual school's discipline, offering a broader education to its students
improved during the Gilded Age. women were going to college more. many more black colleges. private colleges also expanded due ot the philanthropy of the filthy rich.
University where newton attended and studied physics
Faulkner based Jefferson on what town?
Salerno Medical School
founded in Italy in 9th century
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern Renaissance 1400-1600.
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
The Divine Comedy
written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and one of the greatest of world literature. Its influence is so great that it affects the Christian view of the afterlife to this day. The Divine Comedy is composed of three canticas, Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise). In the Inferno, Dante is led by the poet Virgil into the underworld, where he experiences and describes each of the nine circles of hell. The sign at the entrance to Hell reads: "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here."
The Canterbury Tales
Although a Catholic he believed that many priests had distorted the simple teaching of Christ. He admired clear honest thinking and disliked intolerance and persecution. Wrote In Praise of Folly
In Praise of Folly
Erasmus criticized the weakness in human nature and its institutions sarcastically and skeptically in order to help humans better understand and improve themselves. Many thought it was too critical of the Catholic church and said it was the intellectual forerunner of the Reformation. Erasmus finally chose the Pope over Luther b/c he wanted to reform the Church from within, not start a new one.
(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Translation of the entire Old and New Testaments into Latin by St. Jerome
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity. Small window
Soaring open spaces, pointed arches, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, and stand glass windows are characteristics of?
a grotesque carved human or animal face or figure projecting from the gutter of a building, typically acting as a spout to carry water clear of a wall.
stone support on the outside of a building that allowed builders to construct higher walls and leave space for large stained-glass windows
in 1054 this severing of relations divided medieval Christianity into the already distinct Eastern (Greek) and Western (Latin) branches, which later became known as the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, respectively. Relations between East and West had long been embittered by political and ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes.
Donation of Constantine
This was a fraudulent Roman imperial edict which was supposedly written by Constantine the Great. In this edict, the Pope was given the power of civil authority. Later on during the Renaissance period, this edict was proven to be fabricated
The period when all popes were French and resided in Avignon, France, starting with Clement V. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism.
nobles could not interfere in momastery affairs, Pope Gregory outlawed marriage for priests
community of men/women who live and worship together and minister a community in a specific way-males are brothers or monks, females are nuns.
code of chivalry
a code of behavior that governed the aspect of all knights behavior
fights with lances between two knights on horseback
a style of architecture developed in Italy and western Europe between the Roman and the Gothic styles after 1000 AD
Large farm estates of the Middle Ages that were owned by nobles who ruled over the peasants living in the land
an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
science or art of making maps
(1254-1324) Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
naval vessels made and used by the Vikings used of commerce, exploration, and warfare. Long and skinny made of wood. Bow and stern had pointed tips that pointed upward.
Pieces of land given to knights as payment
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles.
When placing a patient in the lithotomy position, what positioning device will the surgical technologist need to obtain?
A deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
Little Ice Age
A century-long period of cool climate that began in the 1590s. Its ill effects on agriculture in northern Europe were notable.