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the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus


the leader of the Franks from 768 to 814 C.E., who unified most of the Christian lands of Europe into a single empire


the economic and political system of medieval Europe in which people exchanged loyalty and labor for a lord's protection


land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service


a peasant who could not leave the lord's land on which he or she was born and worked


the medieval knight's code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women


removing someone's membership to a church


the removal of the penalties of sin

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