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Second New Deal
1935-38; in response to critics of the 1st New Deal (particularly Huey Long and the more radical critics); contained more relief programs and greater protection for labor unions (this was radical for the 1920s anti-union atmosphere); the most extensive of the reform programs that emerged was social security
relief, recovery, reform
categories imposed by historians on the New Deal;
relief= provide employment
recovery= get industrial/agricultural production going again
reform= fix economy to prevent future depression
group of experts whom FDR recruited to help him solve the problem of the depression; well educated and/or extensive government experience; they write the New Deal legislation
first lady to FDR; became a spoke person for FDR's New Deal; strong-willed, starts tradition of active first women; women held 100 positions under FDR because of her
America's first female cabinet member- Secretary of Labor under FDR; ironically supported the exclusion of women from many New Deal programs, in favor of men as breadwinners
priest in Detroit, MI who hosted a radio show; he criticized the New Deal for not going far enough; he wanted monetary reform and nationalization of the banking system
Previously governor of LS, a leftist-populist; criticized the New Deal for not going far enough; formed the Share-Our-Wealth Plan (wealth redistribution)= taxes on high incomes and limits on high incomes- no more than $15 mill; also started Share-Our-Wealth social clubs
United Mine Workers, created congress of Industrial Organization [ CIO ] - helped create industrial unions that accepted all workers and used sit-down striking methods
A. Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries (EO 8802)
John Maynard Keynes
economist who argued that the government would have to spend its way out of the depression- deficit spending; FDR feared unbalancing the budget too much and feared deficits- cut the relief in 1937, causing a recession and proving Keynes' point.
Mary McLeod Bethune
highest ranking black in FDR administration; served as an advisor to FDR in the "Black Cabinet''
Congress of International Organizations
CIO; split from the AFL in 1937 to organize workers in all industries (not by craft/skill); represented unskilled laborers, called for greater worker protection
New Democratic Coalition
the switch of labor and blacks to the democratic party, making it the majority party of the New Deal era;
linkage of northern urban blacks, labor, and liberals as the democratic core from the New Deal era until 1968
the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
March 6, 1933- all banks closed for 4 days so that congress could enact legislation to stabilize the banking system; goal to restore confidence in the banks and avoid panic and withdrawal; congress passes the Emergency Banking Act during this time
EBA= Treasury inspects banks before they can reopen, give $ to get banks back on their feet; reestablished confidence
1932 under FDR; reduced the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms; ended lame duck phase
1933 under FDR (as promised); officially repealed prohibition; helps raise federal revenue and employment
Schechter v. U.S.
1935, court declared the NIRA unconstitutional; president's code making power was an unacceptable grant of law-making authority to the executive branch
Butler v. U.S.
1936, court declared the AAA unconstitutional; congress cannot regulate agriculture (only states can); government cannot tax one group for the benefit of another (tax on processors for farmers)
an especially high import tariff passed by congress in 1930; led to reduction of US international trade, and some retaliation by foreign nations; allowed US to become even more isolated and deep in depression
FDR's radio broadcasts to the nation; puts a spin on the New Deal legislation to make them make sense to the public; many biblical references;
"Nothing to fear but fear itself"
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
established by the Glass-Steagall Act in 1933; insures bank deposits up to $5,000 (now $100,000); helps bring confidence and stability in banks
Public Works Administration
(rel) 1934; grew out of civil works admin; hired 4 million unemployed to do temporary work- building and public works projects
Civilian Conservation Corps
CCC (ref) 1933- FDR personal favorite; employed 18-25 year old men to work in the national forests and parks; conservation work, planted trees, built reservoirs, parks, irrigation systems; 90% of money was sent back to families
Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA (rec) 1933; goal to build dams to provide electricity for rural areas in TN, NC, GA, AL, KY;
subgoals: stop flooding, provide cheap electricity, encourage industry and reforestation, improve farm production, provide jobs
effects: eliminated flooding, gave 1000s electricity, improved transport, had to move families
National Recovery Administration
NIRA (rec) 1933; encourage businesses to follow a blanket code of minimum wage, maximum hours, no child labor, and allowing unions; the president could authorize codes of production for industries;
effects: cooperation from businesses, not enough enforcement, declared unconstitutional
Securities and Exchange Commission
SEC (ref) 1934; created to watch over the stock market to prevent fraud;
associated with Truth in Securities Act which required truth in stock and security sales
Federal Housing Administration
(ref) 1934; insured mortgages for new construction to stimulate economy; federal government also provided mortgage relief for both farms and urban families
Works Progress Administration
2nd New Deal- WPA (rel) 1935; most expensive of programs; "starving artist act"; gave jobs in construction, art, music, history, and literature; employed many women; created NYA youth admin; many labor-themed murals
Nation Labor Relations
NLRA (ref) 1935; created National Labor Relations Board- could force companies to collectively bargain with unions, companies could not discriminate against unions or force workers not to join unions;
protected the growth of unions- the "magna carta" of labor; wins over labor and cements them in the new deal voting coalition
Social Security Act
SS (ref) 1935; created pensions for the elderly and disabled; created unemployment insurance; gave aid to dependent children; didn't cover all workers (agriculture, domestic, government workers)
Fair Labor Standards Act
FLSA (ref) 1938; established minimum wage and maximum hours for workers; disallowed children under the age of 16 from working; however, did not cover certain jobs (ex. black domestic workers)
Indian Reorganization Act
1934; established by John Collier, head of Commission of Indian Affairs; restored land rights to tribes (reversed Dawes Act and gave collective ownership; allowed tribes to be self-governing; Indians still lived in great poverty
accusation that FDR was packing the court with New Deal supporters; arose out of Judicial Reorganization Bill which allowed FDR to add up to 6 new justices for each justice over age 70- this act was never passed; after this, the court got the message and began to uphold new deal programs
left-leaning critic of the New Deal who offered a more radical plan; proposed the Townsend Plan= give all over age 60 a pension of $200/month; inspired Social security
1937-38 unemployment spikes following FDR's cut of budget relief by 33%; proved keynes' point that deficit spending was the only way out of the depression
region in northern China invaded by militarist Japan in 1931; violates treaties, but JA ignores international calls to stop expansion; however, no force is taken against Japan, as the US continues to provide most of their oil
1932 doctrine issued warnings to JA to withdraw from Manchuria- moral suasion- and denied diplomatic recognition to JA; no force or embargoes- failure; example of appeasement
Good Neighbor Policy
1930s US foreign policy towards south and central america; signed a pact at the Inter-American conference in 1933 declaring that no state had the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another; recalls Roosevelt corollary
-US trade increased with Latin America (one of the goals)
- however, US still supported governments in order to get economic benefits, used dictators as puppet leaders
A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.
Italian dictator who took control in 1922 following a march on Rome; joined the Axis powers
German dictator who took control in 1932 (Third Reich) after being named chancellor; head of the Nazi party; leader of the Axis powers; pursued aggressive nationalist policies and extermination of the Jews
National Socialist German Workers Party; political party led by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi Party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule.
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
1934-36; Senator Nye of South Dakota investigated relationships between business leaders and Wilson- he determined that we got into WW1 due to economic involvement, profiteering and tax evasion by "merchants of death"; his conclusion led to growing isolationism and the Neutrality Acts
goal: avoid being pulled into war
1935: mandatory arms embargo on both victim and aggressor, warn civilians to travel at own risk
1936: renewed above but left out civil wars (business profit from Spanish civil war)
1937: Cash and carry established, other countries could only buy nonmilitary supplies and had to transport with own ships, BR reaps benefits
1939: allowed allies to purchase arms through cash and carry, US ships banned from passing through war zones
America First Committee
Anti-war committee formed in 1940; opposed the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies; members included Robert Wood, Lindbergh, General Johnson, Senator Nye, Senator Wheeler, and Father Coughlin; supported by Hearst newspaper and many republicans
1937 speech made by FDR regarding foreign policy and Japanese aggression; declared that nations should quarantine aggressors with economic pressure to prevent further war; the public thought this was going too far, wanted to remain isolated
1938 meeting in Munich between BR, FR, GR- give Hitler the Sudetenland; rationale was that if the allies gave Hitler what he wanted, then he would stop; policy of appeasement greatly favored by BR Chamberlain; policy fails and urges Hitler on
1940; Churchill requested US help; FDR traded ships and arms in return for the right to build bases in BR territory in the western hemisphere; didn't technically violate neutrality act since he received something in return; risky, but public was more concerned about Hitler as a threat to the US
1941; act allowed US to lend supplies to the allies, to be returned at war's end; eventually lent $50.1 billion
Four Freedoms Speech
1941 state of the union address by FDR; freedom of speech, worship, freedom from want, fear; groundwork for US intervention in the war- to spread freedoms
Dec 7, 1941; US stopped selling scrap metal, oil, and steel to JA, which threatened JA expansion; so, they bombed Pearl Harbor causing the US to enter the war
1933, 7th conference with Latin and South America; US announces non-intervention in the southern americas and declares Good Neighbor policy
Smith v. Allwright
1944 case in which a black man sued for the right to vote in primaries; SC ended all-white primaries
Battle of the Atlantic
Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war; convoys, radar, and sonar allowed the allies to win the battle
Spanish Civil War
1936-39 mini rehearsal for WW2; rebels led by Francisco Franco overthrew the government, aided by Hitler and Mussolini; USSR supported the opposing forces
fascist dictator in Spain; overthrew previous government, backed by Germany and Italy
Demilitarized zone between France and germany; Hitler enters the zone and begins rearming in 1936, but no one stops him.
ethnically german area of czechoslovakia; Hitler demands the area in 1938 and it is given to him as appeasement; this allows him to take the rest of czech less than a year later
(FDR) 1934, provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.
Korematsu v. United States
1944 Supreme Court case that backed EO 9022 Internment camps; said that internment was a military necessity and not a form of racism
Harry S. Truman
VP under FDR; became President at his death; dropped atomic bombs on Japan; favored civil rights and implemented the marshall plan
1944 Ally amphibious assault on Normandy, France; gained a beach head and proceeded to liberate France; led to the fall of Germany
Allie strategy during WW2 in the Pacific; avoid heavily guarded islands, hop around on smaller islands and capture those- eventually leaves big islands cut off from supplies
1945 atomic bombs dropped on Japan to force them to surrender; V-J day August 14
development of atomic weapons during WW2; spent $2 billion; scientists like Einstein
1945 conference in which President truman threatened Japan with destruction if they failed to surrender; scared Soviets;
new "League of Nations" formed at the Yalta conference post-WW2; more power than the League; majors powers given a veto; US joins, enabling affectability (out of isolation for good)
Office of Price Administration
created during WW2 to manage prices and ration defense goods (tires, fuel, coffee)
1942, Congress of Racial Equality; founded by James Farmer to encourage an end to segregation through nonviolent process; believed the legal approach of the NAACP to be too slow
1942, idea encouraged by James G. Thompson that encouraged blacks to fight for victory "abroad and at home"; links black military service with demand for civil rights
Rosie the Riveter
symbol of women laboring in manufacturing during the war as proper and ideal workers; about 6 million during the war (25% of eligible women)
1943 riots following the accusation that mexican youth in Los Angeles beat up a white sailor; several days of street fighting between hispanics and sailors
1941, banned discrimination in government defense work; the 1st act to ban discrimination in work; however, the military remained segregated despite the act
Commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II. He was forced to surrender the Philippines in 1941 and was thereafter obsessed with its recapture, which he accomplished in 1944. He later commanded the American occupation of Japan and United Nations troops in the Korean War.
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin; separated by distance, must meet regularly to organize efforts
1944 Big Three conference to discuss post-war plans and reorganization; FDR wants USSR help in Pacific; BR wants democracy in eastern Europe; USSR wants sphere of influence in eastern Europe;
decide that soviets must hold free elections but can have sphere, germany would be divided into 4 zones, and there would be a new "League of Nations"=UN
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