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First New Deal

1933-35 program created by president Roosevelt to fight the depression; the ABC acts

Second New Deal

1935-38; in response to critics of the 1st New Deal (particularly Huey Long and the more radical critics); contained more relief programs and greater protection for labor unions (this was radical for the 1920s anti-union atmosphere); the most extensive of the reform programs that emerged was social security

relief, recovery, reform

categories imposed by historians on the New Deal;
relief= provide employment
recovery= get industrial/agricultural production going again
reform= fix economy to prevent future depression

Brain Trust

group of experts whom FDR recruited to help him solve the problem of the depression; well educated and/or extensive government experience; they write the New Deal legislation

Eleanor Roosevelt

first lady to FDR; became a spoke person for FDR's New Deal; strong-willed, starts tradition of active first women; women held 100 positions under FDR because of her

Frances Perkins

America's first female cabinet member- Secretary of Labor under FDR; ironically supported the exclusion of women from many New Deal programs, in favor of men as breadwinners

Father Coughlin

priest in Detroit, MI who hosted a radio show; he criticized the New Deal for not going far enough; he wanted monetary reform and nationalization of the banking system

Huey Long

Previously governor of LS, a leftist-populist; criticized the New Deal for not going far enough; formed the Share-Our-Wealth Plan (wealth redistribution)= taxes on high incomes and limits on high incomes- no more than $15 mill; also started Share-Our-Wealth social clubs

John Lewis

United Mine Workers, created congress of Industrial Organization [ CIO ] - helped create industrial unions that accepted all workers and used sit-down striking methods

A. Philip Randolph

America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries (EO 8802)

John Maynard Keynes

economist who argued that the government would have to spend its way out of the depression- deficit spending; FDR feared unbalancing the budget too much and feared deficits- cut the relief in 1937, causing a recession and proving Keynes' point.

Mary McLeod Bethune

highest ranking black in FDR administration; served as an advisor to FDR in the "Black Cabinet''

Black Cabinet

100 advisors to FDR; unofficial "cabinet"

Congress of International Organizations

CIO; split from the AFL in 1937 to organize workers in all industries (not by craft/skill); represented unskilled laborers, called for greater worker protection

New Democratic Coalition

the switch of labor and blacks to the democratic party, making it the majority party of the New Deal era;
linkage of northern urban blacks, labor, and liberals as the democratic core from the New Deal era until 1968

Hundred Days

the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.

Bank Holiday

March 6, 1933- all banks closed for 4 days so that congress could enact legislation to stabilize the banking system; goal to restore confidence in the banks and avoid panic and withdrawal; congress passes the Emergency Banking Act during this time
EBA= Treasury inspects banks before they can reopen, give $ to get banks back on their feet; reestablished confidence

20th amendment

1932 under FDR; reduced the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms; ended lame duck phase

21st amendment

1933 under FDR (as promised); officially repealed prohibition; helps raise federal revenue and employment

Schechter v. U.S.

1935, court declared the NIRA unconstitutional; president's code making power was an unacceptable grant of law-making authority to the executive branch

Butler v. U.S.

1936, court declared the AAA unconstitutional; congress cannot regulate agriculture (only states can); government cannot tax one group for the benefit of another (tax on processors for farmers)

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

an especially high import tariff passed by congress in 1930; led to reduction of US international trade, and some retaliation by foreign nations; allowed US to become even more isolated and deep in depression

Fireside Chats

FDR's radio broadcasts to the nation; puts a spin on the New Deal legislation to make them make sense to the public; many biblical references;
"Nothing to fear but fear itself"

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

established by the Glass-Steagall Act in 1933; insures bank deposits up to $5,000 (now $100,000); helps bring confidence and stability in banks

Public Works Administration

(rel) 1934; grew out of civil works admin; hired 4 million unemployed to do temporary work- building and public works projects

Civilian Conservation Corps

CCC (ref) 1933- FDR personal favorite; employed 18-25 year old men to work in the national forests and parks; conservation work, planted trees, built reservoirs, parks, irrigation systems; 90% of money was sent back to families

Tennessee Valley Authority

TVA (rec) 1933; goal to build dams to provide electricity for rural areas in TN, NC, GA, AL, KY;
subgoals: stop flooding, provide cheap electricity, encourage industry and reforestation, improve farm production, provide jobs
effects: eliminated flooding, gave 1000s electricity, improved transport, had to move families

National Recovery Administration

NIRA (rec) 1933; encourage businesses to follow a blanket code of minimum wage, maximum hours, no child labor, and allowing unions; the president could authorize codes of production for industries;
effects: cooperation from businesses, not enough enforcement, declared unconstitutional

Securities and Exchange Commission

SEC (ref) 1934; created to watch over the stock market to prevent fraud;
associated with Truth in Securities Act which required truth in stock and security sales

Federal Housing Administration

(ref) 1934; insured mortgages for new construction to stimulate economy; federal government also provided mortgage relief for both farms and urban families

Works Progress Administration

2nd New Deal- WPA (rel) 1935; most expensive of programs; "starving artist act"; gave jobs in construction, art, music, history, and literature; employed many women; created NYA youth admin; many labor-themed murals

Nation Labor Relations

NLRA (ref) 1935; created National Labor Relations Board- could force companies to collectively bargain with unions, companies could not discriminate against unions or force workers not to join unions;
protected the growth of unions- the "magna carta" of labor; wins over labor and cements them in the new deal voting coalition

Social Security Act

SS (ref) 1935; created pensions for the elderly and disabled; created unemployment insurance; gave aid to dependent children; didn't cover all workers (agriculture, domestic, government workers)

Fair Labor Standards Act

FLSA (ref) 1938; established minimum wage and maximum hours for workers; disallowed children under the age of 16 from working; however, did not cover certain jobs (ex. black domestic workers)

Indian Reorganization Act

1934; established by John Collier, head of Commission of Indian Affairs; restored land rights to tribes (reversed Dawes Act and gave collective ownership; allowed tribes to be self-governing; Indians still lived in great poverty

Court-Packing Plan

accusation that FDR was packing the court with New Deal supporters; arose out of Judicial Reorganization Bill which allowed FDR to add up to 6 new justices for each justice over age 70- this act was never passed; after this, the court got the message and began to uphold new deal programs

Frances Townsend

left-leaning critic of the New Deal who offered a more radical plan; proposed the Townsend Plan= give all over age 60 a pension of $200/month; inspired Social security

Roosevelt Recession

1937-38 unemployment spikes following FDR's cut of budget relief by 33%; proved keynes' point that deficit spending was the only way out of the depression


region in northern China invaded by militarist Japan in 1931; violates treaties, but JA ignores international calls to stop expansion; however, no force is taken against Japan, as the US continues to provide most of their oil

Stimson Doctrine

1932 doctrine issued warnings to JA to withdraw from Manchuria- moral suasion- and denied diplomatic recognition to JA; no force or embargoes- failure; example of appeasement

Good Neighbor Policy

1930s US foreign policy towards south and central america; signed a pact at the Inter-American conference in 1933 declaring that no state had the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another; recalls Roosevelt corollary
-US trade increased with Latin America (one of the goals)
- however, US still supported governments in order to get economic benefits, used dictators as puppet leaders


A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.

Benito Mussolini

Italian dictator who took control in 1922 following a march on Rome; joined the Axis powers

Adolf Hitler

German dictator who took control in 1932 (Third Reich) after being named chancellor; head of the Nazi party; leader of the Axis powers; pursued aggressive nationalist policies and extermination of the Jews

Nazi Party

National Socialist German Workers Party; political party led by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi Party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule.

Axis Powers

in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.

Nye Committee

1934-36; Senator Nye of South Dakota investigated relationships between business leaders and Wilson- he determined that we got into WW1 due to economic involvement, profiteering and tax evasion by "merchants of death"; his conclusion led to growing isolationism and the Neutrality Acts

Neutrality Acts

goal: avoid being pulled into war
1935: mandatory arms embargo on both victim and aggressor, warn civilians to travel at own risk
1936: renewed above but left out civil wars (business profit from Spanish civil war)
1937: Cash and carry established, other countries could only buy nonmilitary supplies and had to transport with own ships, BR reaps benefits
1939: allowed allies to purchase arms through cash and carry, US ships banned from passing through war zones

America First Committee

Anti-war committee formed in 1940; opposed the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies; members included Robert Wood, Lindbergh, General Johnson, Senator Nye, Senator Wheeler, and Father Coughlin; supported by Hearst newspaper and many republicans

Quarantine Speech

1937 speech made by FDR regarding foreign policy and Japanese aggression; declared that nations should quarantine aggressors with economic pressure to prevent further war; the public thought this was going too far, wanted to remain isolated

Appeasement (Munich)

1938 meeting in Munich between BR, FR, GR- give Hitler the Sudetenland; rationale was that if the allies gave Hitler what he wanted, then he would stop; policy of appeasement greatly favored by BR Chamberlain; policy fails and urges Hitler on

Bases-for-destroyers deal

1940; Churchill requested US help; FDR traded ships and arms in return for the right to build bases in BR territory in the western hemisphere; didn't technically violate neutrality act since he received something in return; risky, but public was more concerned about Hitler as a threat to the US


1941; act allowed US to lend supplies to the allies, to be returned at war's end; eventually lent $50.1 billion

Four Freedoms Speech

1941 state of the union address by FDR; freedom of speech, worship, freedom from want, fear; groundwork for US intervention in the war- to spread freedoms

Atlantic Charter

1942; FDR and Churchill met to discuss war aims; reaffirmed Wilson's 14 points

Pearl harbor

Dec 7, 1941; US stopped selling scrap metal, oil, and steel to JA, which threatened JA expansion; so, they bombed Pearl Harbor causing the US to enter the war

Pan-American Conferences

1933, 7th conference with Latin and South America; US announces non-intervention in the southern americas and declares Good Neighbor policy

Smith v. Allwright

1944 case in which a black man sued for the right to vote in primaries; SC ended all-white primaries

Battle of the Atlantic

Germany's naval attempt to cut off British supply ships by using u-boats. After this battle, the Allies won control of the seas, allowing them to control supply transfer, which ultimately determined the war; convoys, radar, and sonar allowed the allies to win the battle

Spanish Civil War

1936-39 mini rehearsal for WW2; rebels led by Francisco Franco overthrew the government, aided by Hitler and Mussolini; USSR supported the opposing forces

Francisco Franco

fascist dictator in Spain; overthrew previous government, backed by Germany and Italy


Demilitarized zone between France and germany; Hitler enters the zone and begins rearming in 1936, but no one stops him.


ethnically german area of czechoslovakia; Hitler demands the area in 1938 and it is given to him as appeasement; this allows him to take the rest of czech less than a year later

Tydings-McDuffie Act

(FDR) 1934, provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.

Korematsu v. United States

1944 Supreme Court case that backed EO 9022 Internment camps; said that internment was a military necessity and not a form of racism

Harry S. Truman

VP under FDR; became President at his death; dropped atomic bombs on Japan; favored civil rights and implemented the marshall plan


1944 Ally amphibious assault on Normandy, France; gained a beach head and proceeded to liberate France; led to the fall of Germany


Allie strategy during WW2 in the Pacific; avoid heavily guarded islands, hop around on smaller islands and capture those- eventually leaves big islands cut off from supplies

Hiroshima/ Nagasaki

1945 atomic bombs dropped on Japan to force them to surrender; V-J day August 14

Manhattan Project

development of atomic weapons during WW2; spent $2 billion; scientists like Einstein

Potsdam Conference

1945 conference in which President truman threatened Japan with destruction if they failed to surrender; scared Soviets;

United Nations

new "League of Nations" formed at the Yalta conference post-WW2; more power than the League; majors powers given a veto; US joins, enabling affectability (out of isolation for good)

Office of Price Administration

created during WW2 to manage prices and ration defense goods (tires, fuel, coffee)


1942, Congress of Racial Equality; founded by James Farmer to encourage an end to segregation through nonviolent process; believed the legal approach of the NAACP to be too slow

Double-V Campaign

1942, idea encouraged by James G. Thompson that encouraged blacks to fight for victory "abroad and at home"; links black military service with demand for civil rights

Rosie the Riveter

symbol of women laboring in manufacturing during the war as proper and ideal workers; about 6 million during the war (25% of eligible women)

Zoot-Suit Riots

1943 riots following the accusation that mexican youth in Los Angeles beat up a white sailor; several days of street fighting between hispanics and sailors


created under the EO 8802 to enforce the act; was to weak to be effective

EO 8802

1941, banned discrimination in government defense work; the 1st act to ban discrimination in work; however, the military remained segregated despite the act

Wildcat Strikes

15,000 strikes occurring during WW2 that were unapproved by unions

Douglas MacArthur

Commanded Allied troops in the Pacific during World War II. He was forced to surrender the Philippines in 1941 and was thereafter obsessed with its recapture, which he accomplished in 1944. He later commanded the American occupation of Japan and United Nations troops in the Korean War.

Big Three

FDR, Churchill, and Stalin; separated by distance, must meet regularly to organize efforts


1944 Big Three conference to discuss post-war plans and reorganization; FDR wants USSR help in Pacific; BR wants democracy in eastern Europe; USSR wants sphere of influence in eastern Europe;
decide that soviets must hold free elections but can have sphere, germany would be divided into 4 zones, and there would be a new "League of Nations"=UN

EO 9066

Executive order legalizing the internment of Japanese americans during ww2

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