52 terms

ANTH Dancing Skeletons

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Magnambougou, Mali; child nutrition
where Katherine Dettwyler spent 2 years; what she did her research on
infant of the mother in the marketplace; mother asked Dettwyler to look at her kid; the son was starving to death and left along in the dark all day long; weaned off of breast-feeding but couldn't eat solids; gastrointestinal tract couldn't handle it; alive when she returned and was a normal/healthy weight
patient #104
Bambara
West African ethnic group; most populous, subsistence farmers closely related by language and culture to the Mandinka of West African countries
Tamasheq
West African ethnic group; matrilineal camel herders an caravaners, often called the Blue Men of the Desert for the indigo from their indigo-dyed clothing, which rubs off their skin, giving them a dark blue tint
Fuliani
West African ethnic group; nomadic pastoralists whose herds of cattle roam the inland delta region, migrating wherever pasture is available, and whose women traditionally display their wealth in gold jewelry; make wedding blankets
Dogon
West African ethnic group; cliff-hugging settlements along the Bandiagara escarpment in northeastern Mali; retained traditional religion in face of Islamic influence
Bozo
West African ethnic group; fishermen who ply the waters of the Niger in hand-carved and painted pirogues (wooden plan canoes); parasites common
prefer injections over pills and last longer and used to healer acupuncture; limited needles so often use a "neighborhood needle" which contributed to the spread of AIDS; feared doctors because one child was injected in the sciatic nerve and she was paralyzed, needing months of physical therapy to walk again
Mali and needles
believe bad spirit causes; first go to a healer for traditional herbs
Mali traditional belief about illness
removal of the hood, clitorectomy, infibulation (less common); cut open when married
three methods of female circumcision
do it because it's tradition, not religion; astounded western women don't and still have a husband; said sex is one's duty for woman and shouldn't be for pleasure; more important things to worry about than sex
Mali women and sex/female circumcision
schisosomiasis; test for parasites that caused red urine; so common it was thought to be the equivalent of female menstration and believed when boy's urine turned red it, sign of sexual maturity; most common in Bozo; medicine administered but would continue to be infected because stayed in water for living
urine collection
women given money from husband and didn't initally want to share how much because reflects how wealthy the family is and the quality of the relationship between a man and his wife; when people were given more hypothetical money, they didn't buy better food but rather more; proven theory wrong, "poverty of parents"
interview problems when asking about money
richer had better access to resources
why difference in the people who lived/died
kwashiorkior
face round nd puffy; hands and feet puffy; swollen abdomen; eyes sunken and dull; meat deficiency, not caloric; common in children no longer being breastfed because new sibling has arrived; referred to as funu bana or "swelling sickness"
FLK syndrom; (funny looking girls); "children who never grow up"
referred to children as this because physical abnormalities when malnourished; forehead buldged, condition knowns as "frontal bossing"; eyes seemed too far apart, the bridge of her nose was depressed, and she had a distinct overbite; not very bright
parents leave child in the bush overnight and if it's gone the next day, believe the child was an evil spirit and turned into a snake
what parents do with chronically ill children who don't seem to improve
development of culturally appropriate nutrition education programs, aimed at improving people's understandings of the links between diet and health, and the importance of making sure that young children get enough food, of sufficient quality, to meet their needs for growth and health
goal of Dettwyler's research
extended families living in large compounds, polygynous marriages, patrilineal descent, patrilocal residence
Bambara social organization
blend of traditional and Muslim beliefs; women aren't secluded/covered; seldom go to mosque or pray at home; rarely fast and not familiar with Koran; sickness/death attributed to Allah
Bambara religion
measles, malaria, upper respiratory infections, polio, and diarrhea
major illnesses of young children in Magnambougou
giving alms was way to attain grace in eyes of Allah; pick out a particular person and always give that one some money and the others will leave you along
why give alms and rules of etiquette
language, medicine
western assets in mali
most men have one or two wives, although Islam limits to four; usually can only afford bridewealth and upkeep of two because must be treated equally and well; also wives usually good friends and will gang up on a man who is mistreating any one of them
men and wives in Mali
going out along at night, because bad spirits are looking for someone to take; if happens, baby could be born dead, deformed, or never grown up
what causes children who never grow up
evidence that rural Malian adults had faces and jaws large enough to comfortably accommodate third molars; lack of refined sugar in their diets leads to few cavities
why Dettwyler wanted to study teeth
they should decide when, where, what, and how much they wanted to eat, but usually offered whatever was available, including some of the meat and vegetables in the cause; "good food" reserved for elders and other adults; children subsisted almost entirely on carbohydrate staples
Magnambougou idea on child nutrition
Dogon hunter; special, almost mystical place in society; wore special clothing and were keepers of secret, sacred knowledge about the bush and about the spirit of animals they killed; intimated that some hunters could even turn themselves into animals; expansion of agriculture and new government prohibiting the hunting of most wild animals had but all robbed hunters of their exalted role; no new young men would be inducted into the secret hunting societies, no new songs would be written in their honor
why Bilo Bissan important
iodine deficiency; main symptom is enlargement of thyroid gland (goiter); iodine is essential nutrient needed by the body for proper brain growth and development and hormonal functioning; more common in women who have higher iodine requirements due to hormones involved in menstruation and pregnancy
nutrition issue in Dogo villiage
cretinism
occurs if pregnant woman doesn't receive enough iodine; permanent mental retardation
children dancing in celebration of becoming CARE certified independent; malnourished so looked like skeletons
where title came from
all able-bodied women and girls were recruited for the incredibly labor-intensive activities involved in extracting vegetable oil from the nuts of the karite, or shea, tree; occurs in fall when karite nuts are ripe; collected in huge mounds and slow roasted in giant earth ovens lined up in rows, stand abot four feet tall; fire kept urning below day and night; oven filled with nuts; after several days of roasting, and hills are easy to move; women sing songs and clap hands; intensive labor resulting in a solid, pure white vegetable oil
karite process
children sat two or three a desk; rooms crowded; in beginning boy girl ratio even but as grades progresses, more boys because school fees expensive and few parents can afford to send daughters who will just end up as wives/mothers and girls needed at home; can't start school until at least eight but some join later; French official language of education and government
school in Mali
animistic- believing spirits inhabit natural objects such as trees and animals, as well as places such as springs, rivers, and mountaintops
traditional Bambara beliefs
not considered proper to express too much public grief over the death of a child, especially a very young infant; considered inappropriate to cry in public; partly because it's considered offensive to Allah, because people say he has made the choice to take the child back to Heaven, and you shouldn't mourn such a fate, because the child was with God
mourning the loss of a child
children with down syndrome; Abi in Mali; children there can live a normal life because not known that there is an issue, just see pecuilarities
angels
breastfeeding- use formula even though not as nutritious; sleep solitary although not as beneficial for baby but better for mother; give nutritious food to children; birth in hospitals
different practices in the west versus Mali with newborns
midwives trained and given a kit with scissors, medicine (but never replenished); only on mother death in 30 years; pack dirt in when cutting umbilical cord
birthing in Mali
hydrocephaly
disease of excess fluid to the head which can easily be drained in the U.S.
villagers aren't given resources or education to manage things on their own
why Dettwyler upset with CARE
delaware
where Lauren Cook from
ethnography, disease and death in Mali, practical research methodologies, anthropologist and the human being, ethnocentrism
five major themes of the book
French, Bambara; Islam
major languages and religions
Miranda; Moussa, Bakary; Heather
daughter; main informants; student that helped
picking beggar, paying elders bache fee
participant observation
friend versus observer (funeral)
why sometimes hard to be "good anthropologist"
third molar eruption as evidence that rural Malian adults had faces and jaws large enough to comfortably accomodate third molars; most urban adults had beautiful, healthy teeth, including all four third molars, fully erupting; lack of refined sugar, and the use of traditional tooth-cleaning sticks in many parts of Mali resulted in few cavities
information can teeth tell people
made from karite nuts; women and girls spend weeks collecting; weeks worth of work to get out solid, pure white, vegetable oil; women have strong hands, forearms; larger mid-upper arm circumferences
shea butter process and biological effects on women
patrilineal; boys go to school; girls begin in school but taken out; girls start economic role earlier; polygyny; women responsible for child care and food
gender roles in Mali
hydropcephaly
excess fluid in the head causing swelling; fatal in Mali; not in US
doesn't solve problem; waste of resources
why nutritional education is important, versus just medical treatments
night blindness
vitamin A deficiency in Macina; most common among pregnant women, not young children; considered normal part of pregnancy; traditional cure is eating piece of roasted goat liver (excellent source of vitamin A)