German friar who nailed 95 theses against the Catholic Church, on the door of Wittenberg's cathedral in 1517. Denounced authority of priests and popes, and declared that the Bible alone was the source of God's word. He ignited a fire of religious reform-the Protestant Reformation.
From Geneva, he was a somber and severe religious leader who elaborated of Martin Luther's ideas in ways that profoundly affected gereations of Americans. Established his basic doctrine in the book 'Institues of the Christian Religion'. He argued that God was all-powerful and all-good and that humans were weak and wicked because of original sin. Also believed in predestination/the elect.
Protestant belief that God is all-knowing and he knows who is going to heaven adn who is going to hell. Since the first moment of creation, some souls-the elect- has been destined fo eternal bliss and others for eternal roment. Good works could not save those who "predestination" had marked for the infernal fires.
Those chosen by predestination, who are going to heaven. No one could be certain of his or her satus in the heavenly ledger. Conversion was thought to be an intense, identifiable personal experience in which god revealed to the elect their heavenly destiny. They were expected to lead "sanctified" lives, demonstrating by their hly behavior that they were among the "visible saints".
English religious reformers who undertook a total purification of English Christianity. They burned with pius zeal to see the Church of England whilly de-catholicized.
Puritan separatists fleein royal wrath, set sail to America could live and die as Englishmen and purified protestants. Before disembarking, the Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact. It was a simple agreement to form a crude governmen and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon. Signed by 41 adult males. The compact was apromising agreement toward self-government.
Self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch. Chosen governor 33 times in the annual elections. Among his major worries was his fear that independant, non-Puritan settlers might corrupt his godly experiement in the wilderness.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
In 1629 a group of non-Separatist Puritans, fearing for their faith and for Enland's future, secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. They proposed to establish a siable settlement in the infertile Massachusetts area, with Boston soon becoming its hub. They denied wanting to separate fromt he Church of England, only from its impurities. The colony started off on a larger scale than any of the other English settlements. During the "Great Migration" in the 1630's about 20,000 people came to Massachusetts.
The Great Migration
Continued turmoil during the 1630's caused about 70,000 refugees left England. Not all of them were Puritans, and about 20,000 went to Massachusetts and the rest went to the warm fertile West Indies, especially the sugar-rich island of Barbados.
A well-to-do pillar of English society, who became the colony's first governor. A successful attorney and manor lord in England, Winthrop believed that he had a "calling" from God to lead the new religious experiement. Served for 19 years. People like Winthrop helped Massachuetts prosper, as fur trading, fishing and shipbuilding-MBC rapidly shot to the for as bothe the biggest and the most influential of the New England outposts.
Adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations, which in time came to be called collectively the Congregational Church. Unchurched men remained voteless in provincial elesctions, as did the women. On this basis about 2/5 of adult amles enjoyed the franchise in provincial affairs. The freemen annually elected the governor and his assistants, as well as a representative assembly called the General Court. But only Puritans-the "visible saints" who alones were eligible for church membership-could be freemen.
Prominant fiery man amoung the early clergy. Educated at England's Cambridge University, a Puritan citadel, he emigrated to Massachusetts to avoid persecution for his criticism of the Church of England. he devoted his learning to defending teh government's duty to enforce religious rules. Profoundly pious, he sometimes preached/prayed up to 6 hours a day.
Challenged Puritan Orthodoxy. She was intellegent, strong-willed, and talkative woman who had 14 children. She was swift adn sharp in theological argument, she carried to logical extremes the Puritan doctrine of predestination. Claimed that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truley saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man-antinomianism (Greek for 'against the law'), was high heresy. She was brought to trial in 1638, where she boasted that she had come by her beliefs through a direct revelation from God, even higher heresy. The Puritan magistrates banished her with her family to Rhode island but moved to NY where all but one of her family memebers were killed by Indians.
More threatening to the Puritan leaders was a personalbe and populat Salem minister. He was a young man with radical ideas and an unrestrained tongue. An extreme Separatist, he hounded his fellow clergymen to make a clean break with the corrupt Church of England. He also challenged the legality of the Bay Colony's chater and then went on to deny the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior-a seditious blow at the Puritan idea of governments very purpose. The Bay colony authorities found him guilty of disseminating "new and dangerous opinions" and ordered him banished. He later fled to Rhode Island in 1636 and built a Baptist church. He established complete freedom of religion, even for Jews and Catholics.
In 1639, the settlers of the new Connecticut River colony drafted in open meeting a trailblazing document. It was in effect a modernt constitution, which established a regime decratiivally controlled by the "substantial" citizens. Essential features of thie document were later borrowed by Connecticut for its colonial charter and ultimately for its state constitution.
King Phillip's War
Hostitlities expoloded in 1637 between the English settlers and the powerful Pequot tribe. In 1675 Massasoit's son, Metacom (called king Phillip by the English) forged an alliance and mounted a series of coordianted assults on english villages throughout New England. The war ended in 1676, 52 Puritan towns attacked and 12 destroyed, hundreds of colonists lay dead and many more Indians. Metacoms wife adn son were sold into slavery and He himself was captured beheaded and drawn and quartered. The War slowed the westward march of English settlement in New Engladn for several decades. But the war inflicted a lasting defeat on New Englands Indians.
New England Confederation
In 1643, four colonies banded together to form the New England Confederation. Onld Engladn was deeply involved in civil wars, and hence the colonists were thrown upon their own resources. the primary purpose of the confederations was defense againts foes or potential foes, notably the Indians, French, and Dutch. Purely intercolonial problems, such as runaway servants adn criminals who had fled came with the jurisdiction of the confederation. Each member of the colony, reguardless of size, wielded 2 votes. the confederation was essentially exclusive Puritan club. It consisted of 2 Massachusetts colonies (Bay and Plymouth) and the 2 Connecticut colonies (New Haven and scattered valley settlements). The confederation was the first notable milestone on the long and rocky road toward colonial unity.
Restored to English throne in 1660, when the royalists and their Church of England was more fimly settled. Puritans hopes of eventually purifying the old English church withered. This guy was determined to take and active aggressive hand in the management of the colonies. His plans ran headlong against the habits and decaeds of realtive independance the colonists were used to. He gave Connecticut a sea-to-sea charter grant which legalized the squatter settlements.
Dominion of New England
Created by royal authority, imposed from London. Embracing at first all New England, it was expanded 2 years laer to include New York and East and West Jersey. The dominion also aimed at bolsteing colonial defense in the event of was with the Indians. It was designed to promote urgently needed efficiency in the administration of the english Navigation Laws. They sought to stitch Enlgland's overseas possessions more tightly to the motherland by throttling American trade with countries not ruled by the English crown. Like colonial peoples everywhere, the Americans chafed at such confinements and smuggling became an increasingly common and honorable occupation. At the head of the dominion was Sir Edmund Andros.
Sir Edmund Andros
Head of the Dominion of England. Autocratic, able English military man who was contscientious but tactless. he generated much hostitlity by his open affliation with the despised Church of Enlgand. he curbed town mettings, put restrictions onf courts/press/schools and rovoked all land title, taxed people without consent of their elected reps. Also strove to enforce navigation laws and supress smuggling. Attempted to flee in womans clothing when the glorious Revolution ramshacked the Dominon of New England.
Resisting opposition, stole a march on the people of New England. 1688-1689 the people of Old England engineered this "Bloodless" Revolution. They dethroned he despotic and unpopular Catholic James II and enthroned the Protestant rulers of the Netherlands, William III and Mary-daughter of James II. When this reached America the Dominon of New England collasped Boston rose against the existing regime.
The Glorious Revolution affected all the colonies and striked against royal authority in America but soon the order was restored by newly alected royal governors and the new monarchs relaxed the royal grip on colonial trade, inaugurating this period, when the much-resented Navigation Laws were only wekly enforced.
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch Republic became a leading colonial power with its activities in the East Indies, where it maintained an enourmous and profitable empire for over 300 years. Virtually a state within a state and at one time supported an army of 10,000 men and a fleet of 190 ships.
English explorer employed by theDutch East India company who sought greater riches. He ventured into Delaware Bay and New York Bay in 1609 and then ascended the Hudson River hoping to find the way through the continent. This began the Dutch West India Company.
Remarkable group of dissenters, arose ion England during mid-1600's. Their name derived from the report that they "quaked" when under deep religious emotion. Officially known as the Religious Society of Friends. They refused to support the Church of England with taxes. They believed that they were all children in the sight of God. They would take no oaths because Jesus had comanded "swear not at all". They refused military service. They were a simple, devoted, democratic people, contending in their own high-minded way for religious and civic freedom.
A wellborn and athletic young Englishman attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660. He embraced the dispised faith and suffered much persecution. eager to establish an asylum for his people, he also hoped to experiement with liberal ideas in government and at the same time make a profit. In 1681 he got a grant of land from the king. He was the first "American advertising man" and then formally launched his colony in 1681.