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31 terms

America's History Ch 29

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Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
domino effect
the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
Ngo Dinh Diem
American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.
Vietcong
A group of Communist guerrillas who, with the help of North Vietnam, fought against the South Vietnamese government in the Vietnam War.
strategic hamlet
US plan to keep the south vietnamese away from viet cong by gathering people in special fortified places away from villages to protect them from VC attacks and prevent them from helping the VC
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Resolution passed by the Senate in 1964 that allowed President Lyndon Johnson borad war-time powers whthout explicitily declaring war
credibility gap
Public skepticism about the truth of statements, especially official claims and pronouncements regarding the war and war efforts
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
counterculture
group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of cultural patterns
Kerner Commission
Created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States., nickname for the Nation Advisory Commission on civil Disorders, which blames the riots on an "explosive mixture" of poverty, slum housing, poor education, and police brutality caused by "white racism" and advised federal spending to create new jobs for urban blacks, construct additional public housing, and end de facto school segregation in the North
Chicano Movement
An extension of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement which began in the 1940s with the stated goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment.
La Raza Unida
political party started by Jose Angel Gutierrez, worked for better housing and jobs, and also backed latino political candidates.
United Farm Workers
A labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight, when the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) went out on strike in support of the mostly Filipino farmworkers of the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Larry Itliong in Delano, California who had previously initiated a grape strike on September 8, 1965.
Native American Movement
Sought to improve the conditions of the Native Americans. Extension of the Civil Rights movement but this time working for Native American rights
American Indian Movement
A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota., formed in 1968 an early organization was formed to address various issues concerning the Native American community including poverty, housing, treaty issues, and police harassment, militant Native American group promote the traditional ways of Native Americans, prevent police brutality and harassment of Indians in urban "red ghettos", and establish "survival schools" to teach Indian history and values
Alcatraz, 1969-1971
Indians took over and occupied the location for 19 months before it fell apart. Successfully tied Indian communities together across the nation and strengthened the Indian Movements.
Wounded Knee, 1973
Followers of the American Indian Movement seize Wounded Knee, South Dakota to highlight bad conditions on reservations. The idea is that if they show up, the people on the reservation will rise up and fight with them but there ends up being a stand off. It lasts for 71 days and eventually they leave. Not all promises made by the government were kept.
identity politics
political activity and ideas based on the shared experiences of an ethnic, religious, or social group emphasizing gaining power and benefits for the group rather than pursuing ideological or universal or even statewide goals
feminism
the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.
Feminine Mystique
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, it called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. it also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution., goal to eliminate gender stereotypes; gain political and economic power
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year, which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted negatively, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Robert Kennedy
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
George C. Wallace
Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967, 1971-1979 and 1983-1987). He ran for U.S. President four times, running officially as a Democrat three times and in the American Independent Party once. He is best known for his Southern populist pro-segregation attitudes during the American desegregation period, convictions he abandoned later in life.
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Cambodia
Nixon widened the Vietnam War by moving troops into this country to try and remove enemy camps.
Kent State
an Ohio University where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4,1970, wounding nine and killing four
Mai Lai Massacre
US Soldiers under the leader ship of Lt. WIlliam Calley were charged and convicted of killing innocent men, women and children in a Vietnamese village
détente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China; typically considered Nixon's foreign policy
SALT I
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to further discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
War Powers Act
passed by congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.