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five special senses all have..
specialized sensory receptors inside sensory organs or epithelial structure
receptor that provides information about the external environment
found in all special senses
extrinsic eye muscles
watery substance that fills the anterior chamber
supports, nourishes and removes waste
gel-like substance in posterior chamber of eye
supports lens and holds retina in place
creates pressure to offset pulling of extrinsic muscles
white off the eye
made of fibrous connective tissue
(posterior end is pierced by optic nerve)
anterior part of fibrous layer
allows light to enter the eye
contains lots of touch and pain receptors
posterior 5/6 of vascular layer in eye
supplies blood to all eye layers
contains melanin to prevent light scattering
anterior 1/6 of vascular layer in eye
a thickened ring of tissue surrounding lens
pathway of an image
light -> cornea -> aqueous humor -> lens -> vitreous humor -> retina -> photoreceptors -> optic nerve -> cerebral cortex
chemoreceptors respond to what?
chemicals in aqueous solution
taste - dissolved in saliva
smell - dissolved in nasal mucus
located on the olfactory epithelium
each with dendrite with several olfactory cilia
extend from dendrites of bipolar olfactory receptors
increase receptive surface area
smell stimulates what parts of the brain?
olfactory cortex for interpretation
thalamus for emotional response
part of the brain that is stimulated by taste
gustatory cortex for recognition
hypothalamus for appreciation (emotional response)
cranial nerves associated with taste
facial - anterior 2/3 tongue
glossopharyngeal - posterior 1/3 tongue
vagus - epiglottis and pharynx
differences between hearing and equilbrium
have two different receptors
receptors respond to different stimuli
external acoustic meatus
curved tube on the temporal bone
filled with hair, sebaceous glands and ceruminous glands
thin, translucent connective tissue membrane
vibrates in response to sound
transfers sounds to middle ear bones
what two openings connect the middle ear with the inner ear?
superior oval window
inferior round window
channels within the bone
vestibule, semicircular canals and cochlea
filled with perilymph
membrane sacs within the bony labyrinth
suspended in perilymph
filled with endolymph
what do the fluids of the inner ear do?
conduct sound vibrations (hearing)
respond to mechanical forces during position change (equilibrium)
three canals that define 2/3 of a circle and lie in three planes of space
(90 degrees from each other)
houses hearing receptors spiral organs of corti
spiral bony chamber extending from vestibule
houses cochlear duct that ends at cochlear apex
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