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Paruta Ch.3

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rocks
an solid of minerals or mineral - like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet.
igneous
magma cools and hardens beneath the surface or as the result of a volcanic eruption
sedimentary
compacted and cemented together
developed through a long process that starts with weathering and ends with lithification
metamorphic
under extreme pressure and temperature conditions sedimentary rocks will change
rock cycle
consists of many process that change earth's cycle
magma
molten material that forms deep beneath earth's surface
lava
magma that reached the surface
weathering
process when rocks are physically and chemically broken down by water, air, and living things
sediments
weathered pieces of earth's materials
rock cycle is powered by heat from earth's interior. internal source is heat
external source is weathering and the movement of weathered materials = produce sedimentary rocks (igneous and metamorphic)
what powers the rock cycle? Internal source and External source
intrusive igneous
rocks that form when magma hardens beneath earth's surface
extrusive igneous
when lava hardens the rocks are formed
erosion
involves weathering and the removal of rocks
4 agents
water the most powerful, wind, ice (glaciers), gravity
deposition
process by which an agent of erosion loses energy and drops sediments its carrying
compaction
process by which sediments are squeezed together by the weight of overlying materials driving out water
cementation
takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments
metamorphism
means to change form
hydrothermal solutions
hot, water- based solutions escape from a mass of magma
non foliated
a rock that does not have a banded texture
foliated
the resulting alignment usually gives the rock a layered or banded appearance
cooling
magma to igneous
melting
igneous to magma
weathering and erosion
igneous to sediments
compaction and cementation
sediment to sedimentary
heat and pressure
sedimentary to metamorphic
weathering and erosion
metamorphic to sediments
melting
metamorphic to magma
heat and pressure
igneous to metamorphic
weathering and erosion
sedimentary to sediments
igneous rocks
Which rock follows cooling and crystallizing?
compacting and cementing
Which process would follow sediments on the rock cycle?
sedimentary rock
When sediments are compacted and cemented what type of rock occurs?
metamorphic rock
Assuming a rock doesn't melt in the process of heating and pressure what type of rock will form?
rock cycle
Draw the rock cycle.
Include all processes and contents. Begin with magma at the top of the cycle.
intrusive igneous rock
What is a rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface?
extrusive igneous rock
What is a rock that forms from cooling lava classified as?
coarse grained texture
What type of texture does a rock have when it forms from a large mass of magma that solidifies slowly far below Earth's surface?
glassy texture
Lava that cools so quickly that ions do not have time to arrange themselves into crystals will have what type of texture?
they decrease in size
As the rate of cooling increases what happens to the size of the crystals?
Large crystals and small crystals
The igneous classifications of
coarse-grained and fine-grained mean...
weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction and cementation
What is the order of the five processes involved in sedimentary rock formations?
clastic sedimentary rock
What type of sedimentary rock is formed by weathered particles of rocks and minerals?
rock was formed near a beach or stream bed
What does it suggest when there are ripple marks in sedimentary rocks?
Clastic and chemical (and also a sub-category biochemical)
The classifications of sedimentary rock are...
a few kilometers below Earth's surface
Where do most metamorphic processes take place?
Earth's interior
Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks?
The Sun
The rock cycle is driven internally by heat from Earth's interior, and externally by energy from ...
heat, pressure and hydrothermal solutions
Name the agents of metamorphism.
Foliated = crystals combine and form visible bands
Non-foliated = non-banded texture
What are the two classifications of metamorphic rock and describe each.
life
The prefix bio- refers to biology which is the study of ...?
The peaks of the Himalayas used to be an ocean floor
Why have fossils of marine animals been found buried in the Himalayas?
hydrothermal solution
What is a hot, water rich fluid that is associated with a cooling magma body?
water, wind, ice (glaciers), gravity
What are the major erosional agents that can pick up, transport, and deposit the products of weathering?
Igneous rock forms from melted rock and
metamorphic forms from heat and pressure. These processes would destroy anything that may come in contact with it.
Why are fossils only found in sedimentary rock?