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an solid of minerals or mineral - like matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet.


magma cools and hardens beneath the surface or as the result of a volcanic eruption


compacted and cemented together
developed through a long process that starts with weathering and ends with lithification


under extreme pressure and temperature conditions sedimentary rocks will change

rock cycle

consists of many process that change earth's cycle


molten material that forms deep beneath earth's surface


magma that reached the surface


process when rocks are physically and chemically broken down by water, air, and living things


weathered pieces of earth's materials

rock cycle is powered by heat from earth's interior. internal source is heat
external source is weathering and the movement of weathered materials = produce sedimentary rocks (igneous and metamorphic)

what powers the rock cycle? Internal source and External source

intrusive igneous

rocks that form when magma hardens beneath earth's surface

extrusive igneous

when lava hardens the rocks are formed


involves weathering and the removal of rocks

4 agents

water the most powerful, wind, ice (glaciers), gravity


process by which an agent of erosion loses energy and drops sediments its carrying


process by which sediments are squeezed together by the weight of overlying materials driving out water


takes place when dissolved minerals are deposited in the tiny spaces among the sediments


means to change form

hydrothermal solutions

hot, water- based solutions escape from a mass of magma

non foliated

a rock that does not have a banded texture


the resulting alignment usually gives the rock a layered or banded appearance


magma to igneous


igneous to magma

weathering and erosion

igneous to sediments

compaction and cementation

sediment to sedimentary

heat and pressure

sedimentary to metamorphic

weathering and erosion

metamorphic to sediments


metamorphic to magma

heat and pressure

igneous to metamorphic

weathering and erosion

sedimentary to sediments

igneous rocks

Which rock follows cooling and crystallizing?

compacting and cementing

Which process would follow sediments on the rock cycle?

sedimentary rock

When sediments are compacted and cemented what type of rock occurs?

metamorphic rock

Assuming a rock doesn't melt in the process of heating and pressure what type of rock will form?

rock cycle

Draw the rock cycle.
Include all processes and contents. Begin with magma at the top of the cycle.

intrusive igneous rock

What is a rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface?

extrusive igneous rock

What is a rock that forms from cooling lava classified as?

coarse grained texture

What type of texture does a rock have when it forms from a large mass of magma that solidifies slowly far below Earth's surface?

glassy texture

Lava that cools so quickly that ions do not have time to arrange themselves into crystals will have what type of texture?

they decrease in size

As the rate of cooling increases what happens to the size of the crystals?

Large crystals and small crystals

The igneous classifications of
coarse-grained and fine-grained mean...

weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction and cementation

What is the order of the five processes involved in sedimentary rock formations?

clastic sedimentary rock

What type of sedimentary rock is formed by weathered particles of rocks and minerals?

rock was formed near a beach or stream bed

What does it suggest when there are ripple marks in sedimentary rocks?

Clastic and chemical (and also a sub-category biochemical)

The classifications of sedimentary rock are...

a few kilometers below Earth's surface

Where do most metamorphic processes take place?

Earth's interior

Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks?

The Sun

The rock cycle is driven internally by heat from Earth's interior, and externally by energy from ...

heat, pressure and hydrothermal solutions

Name the agents of metamorphism.

Foliated = crystals combine and form visible bands
Non-foliated = non-banded texture

What are the two classifications of metamorphic rock and describe each.


The prefix bio- refers to biology which is the study of ...?

The peaks of the Himalayas used to be an ocean floor

Why have fossils of marine animals been found buried in the Himalayas?

hydrothermal solution

What is a hot, water rich fluid that is associated with a cooling magma body?

water, wind, ice (glaciers), gravity

What are the major erosional agents that can pick up, transport, and deposit the products of weathering?

Igneous rock forms from melted rock and
metamorphic forms from heat and pressure. These processes would destroy anything that may come in contact with it.

Why are fossils only found in sedimentary rock?

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