705 terms

Anatomy Test 3

Blood pressures in systemic circulation:
1. systolic pressure
2. diastolic pressure
3. pulse pressure
4. mean arterial pressure
Systolic pressure (SP):
pressure exerted on the aorta and arteries during ventricular systole
Systolic pressure at rest:
120 mmHg
Systolic pressure increases with age because:
the arteries become less compliant
Diastolic pressure (DP):
pressure exerted on aorta and arteries during ventricular diastole
Diastolic pressure at rest:
80 mmHg
Pulse pressure calculation:
120-80= 40 mmHg
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) blood pressure calculation:
average of SP and DP;
(120+80)/2= 100 mmHg
Pressure that drives blood through vessels:
mean arterial pressure
Mean arterial pressure causes:
exchange of fluids through capillaries in tissues
Mean arterial pressure decreases:
the farther away from the heart along the circulatory pathway because of peripheral resistance to blood flow
Resistance to flow increases about ____% in ____.
55, arterioles
Arterioles are the main regulators of:
blood pressure
BP-CO x PR (peripheral resistance)
Increase CO then:
increase MAP
Increase PR then:
increase MAP
Main factors determining PR:
viscosity of blood
diameter of arterioles
If blood viscosity is high:
blood is thick; PR is increased
If blood viscosity is ow:
blood is thin; PR is decreased
Control center:
vasomotor center (VM) located in medulla oblongata
Vasomotor tone center:
sends out few but continuous nerve impulses over sympathetic nerves to arteriolar smooth muscle
The vasomotor center sends out:
few but continuous nerve impulses
The vasomotor center sends nerve impulses over:
sympathetic nerves to arteriolar smooth muscle
Vasomotor tone center maintains:
slight state of vasoconstriction in arterioles
Increased output of VM center above normal produces:
increased vasoconstriction
Decreased output of VM center below normal produces:
Vasoconstriction increases:
peripheral resistance
Vasodilation decreases:
peripheral resistance
Regulatory mechanisms related to PR:
vasomotor baroreflex
vasomotor chemoreflex
Baroreceptors/pressoreceptors location:
carotid sinus and aortic arch
Carotid sinus is in the:
common carotid artery
Baroreceptors are sensitive to:
change in MAP
Baroreceptors send nerve impulses to ____ in VM baroreflex.
the vasomotor center
Carotid baroreceptors connect to the:
glossopharyngeal nerve
Aortic receptors connect to the:
vagus nerve
When changes occur in blood pressure, the receptors will send:
more or less impulses ultimately by way of their nerves to the VM center
VM center location:
Vasomotor baroreflex-INCR MAP:
aortic and carotid baroreceptors DECR output to vagus and gloss nerve-->
reduced number of nerve impulses to VM center-->
DECR output of sympathetic impulses to arterioles-->
arterioles vasodilate-->
DECR PR; DECR MAP toward normal
In vasomotor baroreflex INCR MAP, aortic and carotid baroreceptors:
decrease output to vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves
In vasomotor baroreflex INCR MAP, there is a ____ number of nerve impulses to the vasomotor center.
In VM baroreflex INCR MAP, there is a ____ of ____ ____ to arterioles.
DECR, sympathetic impulses
In VM baroreflex INCR MAP, arterioles:
In VM baroreflex INCR MAP, PR ____ and MAP ___ toward normal.
Vasomotor baroreflex- DECR MAP:
aortic and carotid baroreceptors INCR output to vagus and gloss nerve-->
vagus and gloss nerve sends more impulses to the VM center-->
VM center sends more symp impulses to the arterioles-->
arterioles vasoconstrict-->
VM baroreflex DECR MAP, aortic and carotid baroreceptors:
INCR output to vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves
In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, the vagus and gloss nerve sends:
more impulses to the VM center
In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, the VM sends:
more sympathetic impulses to the arterioles
In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, arterioles:
In VM baroreflex DECR MAP, vasoconstriction leads to:
Chemoreceptors are located in:
internal carotid artery and aortic arch (aka aortic and carotid bodies)
Chemoreceptors are sensitive to:
low oxygen, high carbon dioxide, and low pH of blood
Chemoreceptors send nerve impulses to:
the VM center
Carotid chemoreceptors send impulses:
over the glossopharyngeal nerve
Aortic chemoreceptors send impulses:
over the vagus nerve
Vasomotor chemoreflex:
DECR oxygen levels in arteries-->
aortic and carotid chemoreceptors send impulses over respective nerves to VM center-->
VM center INCR symp impulses to arterioles-->
arterioles vasoconstrict-->
INCR blood flow through lungs and INCR oxygen uptake into blood to normal levels
Vasomotor chemoreflex sequence of events is affected by:
high altitudes or internal hemorrhage
Vasomotor chemoreflex stimulus:
lack of oxygen in arteries
In VM chemoreflex, the VM center ____ ____ impulses to arterioles
increases sympathetic
In VM chemoreflex, arterioles:
In VM chemoreflex, vasoconstriction of arterioles leads to:
INCR in PR and MAP
INCR MAP in VM chemoreflex leads to:
INCR blood flow through lungs and INCR oxygen uptake into blood to normal levels
Regulatory mechanisms related to CO:
physiological center (cardiac center)
cardiac baroreflex
cardiac chemoreflex
Branches of cardiac center:
cardioacceleratory center (CA)
cardioinhibitory center (CI)
The CA and CI are found in:
the medulla
Baroreceptors in carotid sinus and aortic arch connect to:
the cardiac center by the gloss and vagus nerves
Carotid sinus connects to:
the gloss nerve
Aortic arch connects to:
the vagus nerve
Cardiac baroreflex (Marley's law of the heart):
inverse relationship of heart rate and blood pressure, if one goes up the other goes down
Cardiac baroreflex-INCR MAP- aortic and carotid baroreceptors both respond to:
change in arterial pressure
Aortic and carotid baroreceptors at the same time:
inhibit the CA center and stimulate the CI center
CA center=
less NE at SA node
CI center=
more ACh at SA node
Both actions of CA center and CI center leads to:
DECR rate of SA node, DECR HR, DECR CO, DECR MAP toward normal
Cardiac baroreflex- DECR MAP: aortic and carotid baroreceptors both respond to:
change in arterial pressure
Aortic and carotid baroreceptors both at the same time:
will inhibit the CA center and stimulate the CI center
CA center=
more NE at SA node
CI center=
less ACh at SA node
Both actions of CA center and CI center leads to:
INCR rate of SA node, INCR HR, INCR CO, INCR MAP toward normal
Cardiac chemoreflex receptors and nerves are:
the same as involved in the VM chemoreflex
Cardiac chemoreflex stimulus:
DECR oxygen levels in arterial blood
Cardiac chemoreflex sequence of events:
aortic and carotid chemoreceptors both stimulate the CA center in inhibit the CI center-->
CA center= more NE at SA node
CI center= less ACh at SA node
Combo of these events leads to INCR rate of SA-->
INCR blood flow through lungs and INCR oxygen uptake into blood toward normal levels
Starling's law of the heart:
INCR venous return-->INCR SV-->INCR CO, which returns VR to normal and keeps MAP normal
Bainbridge reflex:
INCR VR raises:
blood pressure in the RA and in the vena cava
Baroreceptors in these areas respond to:
increased pressure
Baroreceptors send nerve impulses to:
CA center and CI center
CA center stimulates:
sympathetic input to the heart
CI center inhibits:
parasympathetic input to the heart
Sympathetic input does 2 things:
some fibers go to the ventricular myocardium; others go to the SA node
Fibers going to ventricular myocardium cause:
INCR force of contraction
Fibers going to the SA node cause:
INCR rate of SA node
When both SV and HR increase:
INCR CO, which leads to DECR VR and DECR MAP toward normal
Components of blood:
formed elements
Percentage of plasma that is water:
Plasma serves as a:
solvent of suspension medium
Plasma transports:
substances in circulatory system throughout the body
Soluble constituents:
plasma proteins
NPN substances
organic nutrients
Plasma proteins make up:
7% of plasma
Types of plasma proteins:
serum albumin
serum globulins
Percentage of plasma proteins that is serum albumin:
Percentage of plasma proteins that is serum globulin:
Serum globulins include:
Which globulins aid in transport?
Y-globulins are associated with:
Prothrombin and fibrinogen are associated with:
blood clotting
Functions of plasma proteins (5):
1. maintenance of osmotic balance
2. regulation of blood pH of 7.4
3. transport of lipid substances
4. protection against infection
5. blood clotting
Maintenance of osmotic blood balance is between:
blood plasma and all tissue fluids (Starling-Landis Law of the Capillaries)
Forces involved with maintenance of osmotic balance:
hydrostatic pressure of blood
colloid osmotic pressure of blood
Hydrostatic pressure of blood:
pressure of blood exerted on walls of blood capillaries
Hydrostatic pressure of blood is HIGH at:
the arteriole end of capillary
Hydrostatic pressure of blood is LOW at:
venule end of capillary
Colloid osmotic pressure of blood is produced:
mainly by the concentration of proteins in blood plasma
What contributes slightly to colloid osmotic pressure of blood?
other dissolved molecules and Na+
Mechanism for fluid exchange:
influence of hydrostatic pressure
influence of colloid osmotic pressure
Influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP):
-HIGH at arteriole end of capillaries
-high pressure causes fluid to flow from capillaries into tissue spaces
Influence of hydrostatic pressure becomes reduced at the:
venule end of capillaries
COP is LOW at:
arteriole end of capillaries
As blood flows through capillaries...
some fluid is lost to tissues
Proteins are retained in the:
blood plasma
Because proteins are retained in the blood plasma, COP is higher at:
the venule end of capillaries
Fluid moves into:
capillaries from tissues
The span of blood pH is:
Transport of lipid substances in blood plasma is by:
The lipoproteins that transport lipid substances in blood plasma include:
Lipid substances:
steroid hormones
fat-soluble vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins examples:
A, D, E, K
Protection against infection:
specific y-globulins combine with antigenic substances to stimulate their destruction
Antigenic substances:
other antigenic chemicals
Blood clotting is an:
elaborate set of biochemical reactions
Blood clotting includes:
other plasma proteins that convert blood from a fluid to a semisolid
Non-protein nitrogenous substances:
uric acid
waste product from protein catabolism
Uric acid:
waste product from nucleic acid catabolism
waste product of muscle metabolism
Organic nutrients:
amino acids
blood sugar
fatty acids and triglycerides
inorganic salts
Electrolytes include:
CO2, O2, N2
Formed elements:
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and blood platelets
portions of cells
packed cell volume
Hematocrit centrifugation separates:
formed elements from plasma
Normal value of hematocrit:
43-45% of mostly RBC
Erythrocytes site of formation in adults:
red bone marrow of:

cranial bones
centra of vertebrae
epiphyses of humerus and femur
pelvic bones
lack of O2 in the kidneys
Control of production sequence:
-hypoxia: lack of O2 in the kidneys
-kidneys produce erythropoietin
-EP in blood
-EP stimulates red bone marrow to increase production of RBCs
Kidneys produce:
EP is found in the:
EP stimulates:
red bone marrow to increase production of RBCs
Number of RBC in adult male circulation:
5.0-5.5 million/4l (microliter or cubic mm)
Number of RBC in adult female circulation:
4.5-5.0 million/4l (microliter or cubic mm)
Erythrocyte structure:
biconcave disk
no nucleus
no organelles
plasma membrane surrounds a stroma
The plasma membrane surrounds a stroma that contains:
glycolysis enzymes
carbonic anhydrase
Glycolysis enzymes:
ATP product
chemical that helps take oxygen off of the hemoglobin molecule in body tissues
Carbonic anhydrase is:
an enzyme
Erythrocytes functions are:
Hb related
Erythrocyte hemoglobin structure:
4 protein chains
4 heme groups
4 iron atoms
4 protein chains:
two alpha, two beta
4 heme groups:
one attached to each protein chain
4 iron atoms:
one attached to each heme group site where O2 attached to Hb
Erythrocytes transport:
oxygen and carbon dioxide
Erythrocytes transport oxygen from:
lungs to all tissues of the body
Erythrocytes transport CO2 from:
the body to the lungs
Erythrocytes partially regulate:
blood pH
Erythrocyte life span:
120 days
oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced
Oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced below normal because of:
lower than normal RBC count
lower than normal amount of Hb/RBC
presence of abnormal Hb
higher than normal RBC count
Polycythemia increases:
viscosity of blood and MAP
Primary polycythemia is also called:
polycythemia vera
Secondary polycythemia is also called:
physiological polycythemia
Primary polycythemia:
benign tumorous condition of red bone marrow; includes abnormal blood count; 8-9 million RBC/mm3
Secondary polycythemia:
occurs at high altitudes; 6-8 million RBC/mm3
Leukocytes structure:
-all are nucleated;
-some have granules in cytoplasm with nuclei having 2 or more lobes (granulocytes)
Granules with nuclei with 2 or more lobes are called:
Types of leukocytes:
Granulocytes include:
Agranulocytes include:
monocytes and macrophages (in tissues)
Site of leukocyte formation in adults:
red bone marrow-->
pluripotent stem cell-->
myeloid stem cell-->
granulocytes, monocytes, megakaryocytes, erythrocytes
Site of leukocyte formation in adults #2:
red bone marrow-->
pluripotent stem cell-->
lymphoid stem cell-->
natural killer cells-->
immature b cells-->
immature t cells
Leukocyte maturation- mature NK cells are added to:
the blood
Leuk maturation- mature b lymphocytes in red bone marrow enter:
blood, and then enter lymphoid tissues
What are lymphoid tissues?
spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and Peyer's patches
Where are Peyer's Patches located?
in the small intestines
Leuk maturation- immature t cells leave where?
the red bone marrow
Leuk maturation- immature t cells enter:
blood then enter the thymus gland
Leuk maturation- immature t cells undergo maturation then enter:
blood, then enter the same lymphoid organs that lymphocytes enter
Leukocytes function:
protection against foreign organisms
Non-specific immunity includes:
granulocytes and monocytes
neutrophils and monocytes
Granulocytes and monocytes can move:
about on their own power (ameboid movement)
Granulocytes and monocytes can move through:
capillary walls and enter tissues
ability for granulocytes and monocytes to move through capillary walls
Granulocytes and monocytes can engulf:
bacteria, particulates, cell and tissue debris
How do granulocytes and monocytes engulf things?
through phagocytosis
Neutrophils and monocytes are:
the most important in phagocytosis of bacteria at the site of an injury
Which appears first at the site of injury?
Neutrophils might destroy so many ____, that they _____.
bacteria, self-destruct
Monocytes can enter:
Monocytes are converted to:
Macrophages/monocytes remain in:
Macrophages/monocytes phagocytize:
bacteria, virus-infected cells, and foreign tissues
Immune surveillance is associated with:
NK cells
NK cells in the blood can enter ____ and detect _____ _____.
tissue, bacterial cells
NK cells are cells of:
transported organs and tissues; virus-infected cells and cancer cells
NK cells attack cells by:
creating large holes in their cell membranes by a chemical called perforin
NK cells inject enzymes called:
NK cells inject them to destroy the cellular contents
Hummoral immunity:
antibodies also referred to as Gama Globulins
Gama globulins:
Gama globulins protect against:
most bacteria, viruses, and antigenic chemicals
Mechanism- b lymphocyte reacts with a:
specific antigen and engulfs it by phagocytosis; destroys most of it but not all of it
A portion of the antigen ____ and is placed ____ on the b lymphocyte.
remains, externally
B lymphocyte presents:
antigen to helper t lymphocyte
Helper t lymphocyte releases:
Lymphokines cause the b lymphocyte to:
undergo cell division and differentiation into plasma cells
Plasma cells produce and secrete:
antibodies (gamma globulins)
Antibodies coat surfaces of:
most bacteria, viruses, or antigenic chemicals in the blood
What forms in clumps?
antigenic-antibody complexes
Antigenic antibody complexes of viruses antigenic chemicals or bacteria are:
destroyed in the liver or spleen by phagocytosis or in the blood by special proteins
Antigenic antibody complexes of viruses antigenic chemicals or bacteria are destroyed in the liver or spleen by:
Antigenic antibody complexes of viruses antigenic chemicals or bacteria are destroyed in the blood by:
special proteins
Antigen antibody complexes of some bacteria combine with:
group of proteins normally found in blood plasma
Complement proteins go through a series of:
reactions that produce a final group of complement proteins
The last complement proteins forms:
pores in the cell walls of aggregated bacteria
Pores in the cell walls of aggregated bacteria causes:
fluid to enter bacterial cells, causing them to rupture and to be destroyed
Cell mediated immunity:
protection against some bacteria, fungi, virus-infected cells, organ and tissue transplants, and cancer cells
Cell mediated immunity-mechanism-macrophage:
engulfs foreign cells and digests it
Fragments of antigen from destroyed cell are placed:
outside of macrophage cell membrane
Macrophage now combines with:
a specific inactive helper T lymphocyte
Macrophage releases:
lymphokines that help the T lymphocyte cell to mature and become active
Helper Th lymphocytes secrete:
other lymphokines
These lymphokines stimulate:
growth of more of the same kind of Th lymphocytes
Th lymphocytes release:
different lymphokines that stimulate production of cytotoxic or killer T lymphocytes (Tc)
Lymphokines that stimulate production of Tc:
Tc lymphocytes destroy:
virus-infected cells and other foreign cells and tissues
Still, other lymphokines attract more:
macrophages and granulocytes that destroy foreign cells
Killer Tc lymphocytes destroy:
foreign cells by perforin and granzymes as previously and similarly described for complement reactions
Granulocytes and macrophages destroy:
foreign cells by phagocytosis
Neutrophils life span:
6 hours-a few days
Monocyte life span:
10-20 hours
Lymphocytes life span:
weeks to years
Number in adult circulation:
5,000-10,000/4l (micrograms)
Leukemia definition:
malignancy of red bone marrow includes abnormal cells
Leukopenia is associated with:
advanced infections, metal poisoning, radiation therapy and chemotherapy
Advanced infections:
measles, mumps, chicken pox
Metal poisoning:
lead, mercury, arsenic
Lead, mercury and arsenic have an effect on:
the red bone marrow
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy has an effect on:
red bone marrow and RBC count
Blood platelets are also called:
Site of formation of blood platelets:
red bone marrow
Portions of cytoplasm break off of _____ to form _____.
megakaryocytes, platelets
Number of platelets in adult circulation:
Blood platelets function:
prevention of blood loss
Blood vessel spasm:
vasoconstriction of damages blood vessels (arterioles and venules) to reduce local blood flow
Platelet plug formation:
platelets become "sticky" and seal off damaged end of blood vessel at the site of the wound
Mechanisms of blood clotting is also referred to as:
Phase one:
extrinsic pathway; damaged tissues releases thromboplastin; inactive factor X; intrinsic pathway; damaged platelets release platelet factor; active factor X
Phase two:
prothrombin requires vitamin K for synthesis-->active factor 10-->thrombin
Active factor 10 acts as:
an enzyme in the final phase
Phase three:
Fibrin is an:
insoluble protein that forms threads and it congeals into a blood clot
Thrombin from phase 2 stimulates:
fibrinogen to turn into fibrin
Fluid that remains is:
blood plasma minus fibrinogen
Blood groups determining factors:
agglutinins found in blood plasma
glycoproteins found on the surface of RBC's
Types of agglutinogens:
A agglutinogen
B agglutinogen
Agglutinins found in blood plasma:
soluble proteins that specifically react with agglutinogens on RBCs
Agglutinins are designated as:
a and b
Agglutinins are also called:
antibodies a and b
reaction that occurs when agglutinogen A reacts with agglutinin a or agglutinogen B reacts with agglutinin b
Result of agglutination:
clumping of RBCs
Characteristics of blood groups:
agglutinogens on RBCs
agglutinins in plasma
O, A, B, AB
Agglutinogens on RBCs:
none, A, B, A and B
Agglutinins in plasma:
a and b, b, a, NONE
Normally in blood transfusions:
blood of the same type is transfused between individuals
Sometimes it is possible to transfuse blood between individuals who:
have different blood types, providing NO agglutination reaction occurs
The rule for transfusion is:
AB is the universal:
O is the universal:
Rh factor is also called:
Most individuals have Rh agglutinogen at the:
surface of their RBCs
Most individuals are designated as:
% of caucasians that are Rh+
% of African Americans that are Rh+
Those who do not possess the Rh factor are designated as:
There are NO normally occurring ___ __ in blood plasma.
Rh agglutinins
There are NO normally occurring Rh agglutinins in ___ ___.
blood plasma
Rh agglutinins must be:
induced in blood plasma
An Rh+ male and Rh- female will produce:
an Rh+ child
Any leakage of fetal RBCs across placenta into mother's blood stream causes:
mother to make Rh+ antibodies against Rh+ fetal RBCs
In later pregnancies, mother's Rh- antibodies can:
cross the placenta and attack fetal Rh+ RBCs
RBCs can be:
agglutinated and destroyed
Result of RBCs being agglutinated or destroyed in child if mild:
HDN (hemolytic disease) of the newborn
Hemolytic disease characteristics:
child is jaundiced
Result of RBCs being agglutinated or destroyed in child if severe:
erythroblastosis fetalis
Erythroblastosis fetalis characteristics:
child is stillborn
Components of lymph vessels:
lymphatic capillaries
collecting vessels
lymphatic ducts
Lymphatic capillaries size and structure are:
similar to blood capillaries
Lymphatic capillaries are what kind of sac?
dead end sacs
Lymphatic capillaries intermingle with:
blood capillaries in most body tissue
lymphatic capillaries in the villi of the small intestine
Collecting vessels are formed by:
convergence of lymphatic capillaries
Collective vessels have a structure similar to:
veins, but walls are thinner and there are more valves in these vessels
Movement of lymph is by:
skeletal muscle contractions (arms and legs)
Collecting vessels interconnect:
lymph nodes
Lymphatic ducts are also called:
collecting ducts
Lymphatic ducts receive:
lymph from collection vessels
Right lymphatic duct receive lymph from:
lymph vessels that drain upper right quadrant of the body into the right subclavian vein
Thoracic duct is also called:
left lymphatic duct
Thoracic duct drains lymph from:
the left side of body and lower right quadrant into the left subclavian vein
Thoracic duct begins at the:
cisterna chili
Cisterna chili:
expanded base of the thoracic duct at the level of the second lumbar vertebra
The cisterna chili ascends:
superiorly and narrows into the left lymphatic duct
fluid of the lymph vascular system
Lymph characteristics:
similar to blood plasma but contains much less protein
Lymph formation and circulation:
1. blood plasma is filtered through blood capillaries into tissues spaces
2. 40% of tissue fluid returns to venules as blood plasma
3. 60% of tissue fluid enters lymph capillaries as lymph
4. lymph moves to collecting vessels
5. lymph moves to either thoracic or R lymphatic duct
Lymph moves from R lymphatic duct to:
R subclavian vein
Lymph moves from L lymphatic duct to:
L subclavian vein
Lymph nodes are found in:
most body tissues
Large aggregations are located in:
1. cervical area along sternocleidomastoid muscle
2. axillary region
3. antecubital region
4. inguinal region
arm pit
in front of elbow
Lymph node structure:
afferent lymph vessels deliver lymph to lymph nodes and terminate
outer covering of a node
partitions extend inward form capsule and form compartments where lymph nodules are located
Lymphatic nodule has a:
germinal center that produces lymphocytes
Lymphatic sinuses:
fluid filled spaces around a lymphatic nodule
Efferent lymph vessels carry lymph:
away from lymph nodes
Lymph node function- production of:
specific t lymphocytes that are added to the blood for cell-mediated immunity
Lymph node function- formation of:
plasma cells from lymphocytes for the production of specific antibodies (humoral immunity)
Lymph node function- purification of lymph:
reticuloendothelial cells or macrophages found in lymphatic sinuses that phagocytize bacteria and cell or tissue debris
Reticuloendothelial cells phagocytize:
bacteria and cell or tissue debris
Functions of lymph- vascular system:
1. those of lymph nodes
2. return of tissue fluids and some plasma proteins to the cardiovascular system
c. absorption of lipids from the digestive tract
the accumulation of fluid in tissues because of blockage of lymph vessels (surgery parasites)
largest lymphatic organ in the body
Spleen location:
upper left quadrant
left of stomach
below diaphragm
above left kidney
Spleen structure:
external capsule
splenic pulp
External capsule:
connective tissue with small amount of smooth muscle
extensions of capsule inward form capsule (connective tissue)
Trabeculae subdivides:
spleen into internal compartments
Splenic pulp is found:
between trabeculae
White pulp is made of:
lymphatic nodules
Red pulp is found:
in spaces outside blood vessels
Red pulp is filled with:
RBC and macrophages (RE cells)
Red pulp blood sinuses are lined by:
endothelial cells
Red pulp connects:
arterioles to venules
Splenic pulp function- production of:
active b lymphocytes and t lymphocytes in white pulp
Splenic pulp function- destruction of:
old dying RBC by RE cells in red pulp
Splenic pulp function-blood reservoir:
stores approximately 200 ml of blood; in an emergency or stress, extra blood can be injected into circulation
anxiety or exercise
External respiration:
exchange O2 and CO2 between blood and external environment (lungs)
Internal respiration:
exchange O2 and CO2 between blood and all cells of body
Cellular respiration:
series of biochemical reactions; O2 is consumed and CO2 is produced
Inspiration is also called:
air taken into lungs
Expiration is also called:
air expelled from lungs to the external environment
Biochemical reaction examples:
Krebs cycle
electron transport
oxidative phosphorylation
Respiratory system location:
thoracic cavity
above diaphragm
Thoracic cavity walls are formed by:
rib cage and intercostal muscles
Floor of thoracic cavity is:
the diaphragm
dome shaped skeletal muscle at base of rib cage
Diaphragm is innervated by:
L and R phrenic nerve
Thoracic cavity serves as a pathway:
of air in the respiratory system
Upper respiratory tract:
nasal cavities->
Air is filtered, warmed and mixed in the:
nasal cavities
upper throat
throat behind tongue
connected to larynx
voice box
Larynx body is made of:
cartilages, mainly thyroid (Adam's apple), cricoid cartilage, and skeletal muscle
flap of elastic cartilage connected to anterior larynx
Epiglottis fits over the:
rima glottidis to cover it
Epiglottis prevents:
food and drink from entering the trachea
opening into the larynx
Lower respiratory tract components:
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
tertiary bronchi
Trachea (windpipe):
descends from the larynx in the neck to lungs in thoracic cavity
Outer wall of trachea is made of:
c shaped cartilage rings; incomplete on posterior side
C shaped cartilage rings prevent:
trachea from collapsing; subdivide into 2 primary bronchi at carina
How many primary bronchi?
Primary bronchi:
supply each lung
Primary bronchi have same structure as:
Primary bronchi subdivide into:
secondary bronchi
How many secondary bronchi?
Secondary bronchi supply:
lobes of the lungs
Left lung has ____ lobes.
Right lung has ____ lobes.
Structure of secondary bronchi is:
the same as primary bronchi
Secondary bronchi subdivide into:
tertiary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi:
cartilage in walls made of plates, NOT rings (flat)
Tertiary bronchi subdivide into:
bronchioles that are within each lobe of the lung (muscular tubes)
derived from tertiary bronchi
Bronchiole walls are made of:
smooth muscle
Bronchioles subdivide into:
alveolar ducts
Alveolar ducts lead to:
Lower respiratory tract:
primary bronchi->
secondary bronchi->
tertiary bronchi->
Alveolar sacs and alveoli:
grape like clusters of sacs located at the end of an alveolar duct
Alveolar sacs and alveoli are composed of:
a group of alveoli
Alveolar sacs and alveoli are one:
cell layer thick
Alveolar sacs/alveoli outer surface is:
in contact with blood capillaries
Outer surface of alveolar sacs/alveoli is the site of:
exchange of O2 and CO2
Inner surface of alveolar sacs/alveoli is filled with:
Inner surface of alveolar sacs/alveoli contain:
cells covered with a lipoprotein
Cells covered with a lipoprotein reduces:
surface tension in lungs
Cells covered with a lipoprotein prevents:
alveoli from collapsing
Macrophages at inner surface of alveolar sacs destroy:
foreign particulates and dead tissue debris
Thoracic cavity:
air tight space around each lung
Parietal pleura:
inner lining of thoracic cavity
Parietal pleura attaches to:
inner surface of internal intercostal muscles
Visceral pleura:
outer lining of lungs
Pleural space (air tight):
between parietal and visceral pleura
Pleural space is filled with:
pleural fluid
Significance of pleural fluid:
it keeps parietal and visceral pleura in contact with each other, therefore, it keeps lungs in constant contact with the wall of the thoracic cavity
If volume of thoracic cavity increases:
so does the volume of the lungs
If air enters the pleural space, this is called:
pneumothorax and the lung could collapse
the lung collapsing
Inspiration at rest-external intercostal and diaphragm contract:
at the same time
Inspiration at rest- contraction on external intercostals cause the rib cage to:
move forward and upward
Rib cage moving forward and upward causes:
the volume of thoracic cavity to increase
The diaphragm contracting causes:
volume of thoracic cavity to increase
When the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, it causes:
lung volume to increase->
air pressure in alveoli to decrease->
final result (inhalation)
Expiration at rest:
external intercostals and diaphragm RELAX->
rib cage and diaphragm return to resting position->
decreases volume of thoracic cavity->
lungs return to resting position->
increases air pressure in alveoli->
final result, air forced out of lungs (exhalation)
In expiration at rest, lungs return to resting position because of:
their elasticity
Expiration during exercise:
INTERNAL intercostals contract->
pulls rib cage downward and backward forcibly

abdominal muscles contract at the same time->
compresses abdomen wall
The contraction of both internal intercostals and abdominal muscles:
compresses the lungs->
forces air out of lungs ONLY during exercise
Tidal volume:
500 ml at rest
Tidal volume definition:
volume of air exchanged in and out of lungs during normal quiet breathing
Inspiratory reserve volume:
M 3000 ml
F 2100 ml
Inspiratory reserve volume definition:
maximum volume of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation
Expiratory reserve volume:
M 1200 ml
F 800 ml
Expiratory reserve volume definition:
maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation
Vital capacity:
M 4700 ml
F 3400 ml
Vital capacity definition:
volume of air exchanged between a maximum inhalation and a maximum exhalation
Residual volume:
M 1200 ml
F 1000 ml
Residual volume definition:
volume of air remaining in lungs following a maximal exhalation
Total lung capacity:
M 5900 ml
F 4400 ml
Total lung capacity definition:
sum of vital capacity and residual volume
Dead space air or anatomical dead space:
150 ml
Dead space air definition:
volume of air from the nostrils to terminal bronchioles
Why is it called dead space?
Because there is NO oxygen or carbon dioxide exchange in this part of the respiratory tract
Physiological centers:
respiratory centers
apneustic center
Respiratory centers are found:
in the medulla oblongata
Respiratory centers:
dorsal respiratory group
ventral respiratory group
Dorsal respiratory group:
inspiratory center
Ventral respiratory group:
expiratory center
Pontine respiratory group (PRG) is found in:
the pons
Apneustic center is found in:
the pons
Mechanism of normal quiet breathing inspiration (inhalation):
DRG active (2 secs)->
stimuli to external intercostals and diaphragm->
muscles contract->
Mechanism of normal quiet breathing expiration (exhalation):
DRG inactive (3 secs)->
no stimuli to diaphragm nor external intercostals->
muscles relax->
normal quiet breathing
lack of breathing movements
rapid deep breathing of exercise
rapid deep breathing other than exercise
difficult or labored breathing (pneumonia)
Regulation of lung ventilation factors:
high CO2
High [H+]
low O2 in arterial blood
INCR PCO2 concentration in arterial blood;
INCR PCO2 in arterial blood;
carbonic action reaction in CSF
H+ + HCO-3
In hypercapnia, H+ stimulates:
DRG, leading to INCR output
INCR ventilation rate-->
DECR PCO2 in arterial blood-->
reverse carbonic acid reaction in CSF-->
H+ + HCO3- -->
DECR H+ in CSF-->
DECR stimulation of DRG--> return to eupnea
INCR H+ in arterial blood
Acidosis keeps pH:
below 7.35 (acidemia)
Respiratory acidosis is caused by:
INCR PCO2 in arterial blood (addition of fixed acids, any source other than carbon dioxide)
Source other than carbon dioxide example:
lactic acid
Examples of respiratory acidosis causes:
1. depression of respiratory center due to head injury
2. obstruction in respiratory airway
3. pneumonia
Depression of respiratory center due to head injury:
causes increased PCO2
Obstruction in respiratory airway:
fluid in alveoli
Metabolic acidosis is caused by:
buildup of metabolic wastes in blood plasma
Metabolic acidosis examples:
1. untreated diabetes mellitus
2. kidney failure
3. excessive diarrhea
Untreated diabetes mellitus:
Kidney failure:
build up of acids in blood
Excessive diarrhea:
loss of alkaline substance
Response mechanism to acidosis- peripheral chemoreceptors are located in:
internal carotid artery and in aortic arch
Peripheral chemoreceptors are also called:
carotid bodies
Peripheral chemoreceptors located in internal carotid artery detect:
acidosis of arterial blood
Nerve impulses are sent via:
glossopharyngeal nerve (carotid bodies) and vagus nerve (aorta) to DRG
DRG increases:
output to respiratory muscles that causes hyperPnea
Response mechanism to acidosis- reduces PCO2 levels of arterial blood and acidosis until:
initial cause of acidosis is relieved
lack of PO2 levels in arterial blood
Causes of hypoxemia:
1. severe hemorrhage
2. low O2 content in air at high altitudes
Severe hemorrhage:
loss of plasma
Hypoxemia responses:
same pathway as for acidosis
Respiratory functions of blood:
oxygen/carbon dioxide transport
provides the alkaline reserve
Diffusion of gases:
body tissues
O2 diffuses from alveoli into pulmonary capillaries-->CO2 diffuses from pulmonary capillaries into alveoli
Body tissues:
CO2 diffuses from tissue cells into blood capillaries-->O2 diffuses from blood capillaries into tissue cells
Chemical forms of transported gases:
5% dissolved in blood plasma
95% combined with hemoglobin (HbO2)
Carbon dioxide:
5% dissolved in blood plasma
20% combined with hemoglobin (HbCO2)
75% HCO3- dissolved in blood plasma
Alkaline reserve:
large buffering capacity of blood plasma
Blood provides the alkaline reserve-process:
1. HCO-3 produced in RBC moves to blood plasma and combines with Na- to become NAHCO3 (alkaline reserve)
When acids are added to blood plasma:
they react with NAHCO3 and are neutralized up to a certain point
Alkaline reserve plays a major role in:
maintaining blood pH between 7.35 and 7.45
lack of oxygen available to tissues
lack of oxygen in arterial blood
Hypoxemia is also termed:
hypoxic hypoxia
Anemic hypoxia:
lack of oxygen in blood due to lack of normal number of RBCs in circulation or lack of normal amount of Hb in RBCs
Stagnant hypoxia:
normal oxygen levels in arterial blood BUT decreased cardiac output reduces delivery of blood to tissues and less O2
Histotoxic hypoxia:
poisons prevent oxygenation of hemoglobin in lungs and this results in lack of oxygenation of tissues; cellular respiration is inhibited in mitochondria
Poisons associated with histotoxic hypoxia:
carbon monoxide and cyanide
Chronic hypoxia:
lack of normal oxygen content in blood due to environmental conditions (high altitudes) where there is a low level of oxygen in the environmental air
General structures of digestive system/GI tract:
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, anus, accessory glands
Accessory glands:
General functions of digestive system:
1. physical and chemical digestion of non-utilizable foodstuffs into small molecular weight nutrients
2. absorption of organic nutrients, water, salts, and vitamins
3. elimination of wastes (feces)
lateral border
palatine arches
hard palate
soft palate
Hard palate:
front portions of maxillary and palatine bones
Hard palate is covered by:
mucous membranes
Soft palate:
skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane (uvula and palatine arches)
Lateral border:
skeletal muscle with tongue overlying
opening of oral cavity into oropharynx
Palatine arches:
border between oral cavity and oropharynx (behind palatine arches)
Salivary glands are all:
Salivary glands:
parotid gland
Parotid gland is the ____ salivary gland.
Parotid gland location:
angle of mandible
Parotid gland function:
secretes fluid containing ptyalin or salivary amylase
Parotid gland swells in:
mumps (in adult male sterility possible)
Sublingual location:
anterior floor of mouth
Sublingual function:
secretes mucous/serous fluid from many small ducts under tongue
Submandibular is also termed:
Submandibular location:
posterior to sublingual and lateral
Submandibular function:
secretes mucus with little ptyalin under tongue
Regions of the pharynx:
posterior to nasal cavity
opens into oropharynx
posterior to mouth
opens into laryngopharynx
connects oropharynx to trachea and esophagus
collapsible muscular tube
Esophagus location:
posterior to trachea
Esophagus connects:
laryngopharynx to stomach
Esophagus structure:
four layers of tissues
4 tissue layers of esophagus:
tunica serosa
tunica muscularis
t. submucosa
t. mucosa
Tunica serosa serous membrane:
outer cover; upper esophagus t. adventitia above diaphragm; lower esophagus t. serosa below diaphragm
Tunica muscularis:
combined skeletal and smooth muscle;

upper 1/4 skeletal
lower 3/4 smooth
Tunica muscularis outer layer:
Tunica muscularis inner layer:
T. submucosa:
areolar connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessles
T mucosa:
mucous membrane with stratified squamous epithelium
J shaped organ
Stomach location:
high in abdominal cavity, under diaphragm, in upper L and R quadrants
Stomach divisions:
cardiac region
Cardiac region:
circular area located at point where esophagus enters stomach (lower esophageal)
What is found at the cardiac region junction?
sphincter like muscle called "cardiac sphincter"
Cardiac sphincter:
not a true sphincter, GERD
Fundus location:
to the left and above cardiac region; blind sac
Body (corpus):
located between cardiac region and lower stomach regions
below the body where stomach begins to narrow (funnel-shaped)
below the antrum; connects stomach to duodenum; contains pyloric sphincter
Pyloric sphincter:
regulates movement of contents into duodenum
Lesser curvature:
on right side
Greater curvature:
on left side
Layers or coats of tissues:
1. tunica serosa
2. tunica muscularis
3. t. submucosa
4. t mucosa
Tunica serosa:
serous membrane; outer layer of visceral peritoneum
Tunica serosa forms:
a double layer of tissue embedded with adipose tissue in two regions
Two regions of adipose tissue in tunica serosa:
greater omentum
lesser omentum
Tunica muscularis is made of:
three layers of smooth muscle- outer, middle, inner
T. muscularis outer layer:
longitudinal, from fundus to pyloric sphincter
T. muscularis middle layer:
circular; around the lumen
T. muscularis inner layer:
obliquely oriented; runs from lesser curvature to greater curvature at an angle
T. submucosa:
areolar connective tissue
T. submucosa connects:
mucosa to musclaris
T. submucosa is highly vascularized with:
lymphatic vessels
T. mucosa:
mucous membrane contains gastric glands an forms inner lining of stomach
When stomach is empty:
t. submucosa and t. mucosa present in longitudinal folds called rugae
When stomach contains food:
rugae flatten and surface becomes smooth (tissues stretching without tearing)
Cell types and secretions (gastric glands):
parietal cells
chief cells
mucous cells
Parietal cells:
secrete H+ and Cl= that form HCl=acid pH 1-3; also secretes intrinsic factor
Chief cells:
secrete pepsinogen (inactive form of the enzyme pepsin)
Mucous cells:
secrete mucus that covers the inner surface of the stomach to protect it from HCl and pepsin
Smooth muscle contraction of stomach causes:
physical breakdown and mixing of food
Secretion of gastric juice is a function of:
the stomach
What gastric juices are used for chemical digestion?
HCl and pepsinogen
Secretion of intrinsic factor is for the absorption of:
vitamin B12 from food
Food + B12 combine in stomach-->
small intestine where both are absorbed
Lack of intrinsic factor leads to:
lack of vitamin B12 resulting in pernicious anemia
Small intestine characteristics:
1" in diameter
6' in length
highly coiled
fills much of the abdominal cavity
The small intestines is connected to:
posterior body wall by mesentery (highly vascularized with lymphatic vessels and nerves)
Divisions of small intestine:
first 10" past pyloric sphincter
C shaped
NOT associated with mesentery
next 2' past duodenum
last 3.5' past jejunm
There is no external distinction between:
jejunum and ileum
Ileum contains:
Peyer's patches (lymphoid tissue) whereas jejunum does NOT
Peyer's patches must be identified:
Ileocecal valve:
marks the end of ileum
Ileocecal valve is located:
between ileum and cecum
Ileocecal valve is NOT:
a sphincter
Ileocecal valve prevents:
regurgitation of large intestine contents backward into ileum
Layers/coats of tissues of small intestine:
tunica serosa
tunica muscularis
t. submucosa
t. mucosa
Tunica serosa small intestine:
outer layer of visceral peritoneum (serous membrane)
T. serosa small intestine forms:
the mesentery for connection to posterior body wall
T. muscularis small intestine:
2 layers of smooth muscle;
outer is longitudinal
inner is circular
T. submucosa small intestine:
highly vascularized areolar connective tissue with lymphatic vessels and nerves + blood vessels
T. submucosa connects:
t muscularis to t. mucosa
T. submucosa small intestine with mucosa forms:
circular folds (plicae circularis)
T. submucosa of small intestine increases:
inner surface area of small intestine
T. mucosa:
mucous membrane; single layer of epithelial cells formed into a villus (finger like projection)
T. mucosa extends into:
T. mucosa further increases:
internal surface area of small intestine
In t. mucosa of small intestine, a network of blood capillaries surrounds:
a central lacteal (dead end lymphatic capillary)
Crypts of lieberkuhn:
depression between villi; are small intestinal glands; secrete watery solution
Cell types of small intestine:
goblet cells
paneth cells
Goblet cells:
secrete mucus to protect mucosa from digestive enzymes
Paneth cells:
secrete peptidase (for digestion) and lysozymes (kill bacteria)
Functions of small intestine:
1. complete process of chemical digestion
2. absorption of digestive end products into blood and lymph
3. absorption of vitamin B12 and other vitamins, salts and water
4. secretion of hormones that regulate the digestive process
Large intestine location:
abdominal and pelvic cavities
Divisions of the large intestines:
anal canal
blind pouch where ileum opens into large intestines
Appendix is found in:
dead end extension of cecum; non functional
Appendix location:
lower R abdominal quadrant
right lateral side of abdominal cavity
Ascending colon extends:
upward toward liver and makes a 90 degree turn (hepatic flexure)
Transverse colon:
extends horizontally across top of umbilical region form R to L under liver and stomach; at spleen, makes a 90 degree turn (splenic flexure)
Descending colon:
extends downward on left lateral side of abdominal cavity from spleen and stomach region to iliac crest
s shaped
Sigmoid location:
below descending colon
Sigmoid extends into:
pelvic cavity and connects to rectum
7-8" tube past the sigmoid colon
Anal canal:
1" tube from rectum to outside
opening to outside surrounded by two sphincters
Two anus sphincters:
Inner anus sphincter:
smooth and involuntary muscle
Outer anus sphincter:
skeletal voluntary muscle
Layers/coats of tissue for large intestine:
t. serosa
t. muscularis
t submucosa
t. mucosa
T serosa large intestine:
serous membrane
visceral peritoneum
T. muscularis large intestine:
smooth muscle
Taenia coli:
three strips of longitudinal muscle; run the length of the colon but are shorter than total length so pouches (haustrae) are formed; inner layer complete circular muscle
T. submucosa large intestine:
highly vascularized areolar connective tissue; connects circular smooth muscle to mucosa
T. mucosa large intestine:
mucous membrane; no villi present
Large intestine functions:
1. absorption of water from wastes
2. absorption of some vitamins
3. elimination of feces
Absorption of water from wastes:
compacts and dehydrates fecal material
Absorption of some vitamins:
Bcomplex and K; vitamins that are produced by bacteria that normally are present in the colon
Elimination feces:
rectum is fecal reservoir; usually empty just prior to a bowel movement
Ancillary organs:
largest gland in the body; average weight 3-4 pounds
Liver location:
mostly in upper R abdominal quadrant and a portion in the L upper abdominal quadrant
External structure (4 lobes):
anterior side
posterior side
Anterior side:
falciform ligament divides liver into right and left lobes
Posterior side:
right lobe subdivided into right lobe proper; caudate lobe and quadrate lobe
Liver-blood supply (2 sources):
hepatic artery
hepatic portal vein
Hepatic artery subdivides into:
liver sinusoids and hepatic veins
Liver sinusoids acts as:
blood capillaries
Hepatic portal vein subdivides into:
liver sinusoids and hepatic veins
Liver sinusoids in hepatic portal vein:
tissue spaces lined by endothelium and serve as capillaries (passage of proteins); necessary because liver makes most almost all of the proteins found in the blood plasma
Kupfer cells (RE cells):
are found lining sinusoids (macrophages)
Liver tissue structure:
liver lobule (basic unit of function)
Central vein:
in center of lobule
vertical plates of cells
Hepatocytes surround:
sinusoids that radiate out from central vein
Peripheral structures (triads):
branch of hepatic artery
branch of hepatic portal vein
interlobular bile ducts
Liver sinusoids form when:
small branches of hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein fuse together; connect these vessels to central vein
lined up around sinusoids
Bile caniculi:
dead end tubes between plates of hepatocytes
Bile caniculi extend to:
periphery where they enter interlobular ducts and release bile made by hepatocytes
Interlobular bile ducts drain:
bile into hepatic duct, which sends bile to the gallbladder
Gall bladder:
blind sac located in lower right lobe of liver
Hepatic duct:
receives bile from L and R lobes of liver and sends bile to gall bladder
Cystic duct:
emerges from gall bladder
Cystic duct combines with:
hepatic duct to form common bile duct
Common bile duct:
extends down to duodenum
Common bile duct combines with:
the duct of Wirsung (pancreatic duct); both enter duodenum
Functions of the liver:
1. intermediary metabolism
2. storage
3. synthesis
4. secretion
5. excretion
Intermediary metabolism:
production of glucose from non-carbohydrates (fat and protein)
Liver storage of:
Liver storage of glycogen:
stored in hepatocytes in large quantities to produce glucose as needed
Liver storage of vitamins:
fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K
Liver synthesizes:
most plasma proteins except antibodies
Plasma proteins that liver synthesize includes:
A-1, A-2, and B globulins
prothrombin and fibrinogen
The liver synthesizes ____ of cholesterol in body.
Liver synthesizes bile:
bile salts and bile pigments
Liver synthesizes heparin:
prevents intravascular blood clotting
Liver secretion:
secretes bile salts and bile pigments in the form of bile (stored in gall bladder)
Liver excretion:
kupfer cells
detoxifies drugs
produces urea
Liver excretion of kupfer cells:
destroy bacteria, aged RBCs and tissue debris by phagocytosis
Liver excretion of bilirubin:
into small intestine
Another name for bilirubin:
bile pigment
Liver excretion-detoxifies drugs:
detoxifies drugs and foreign chemicals to harmless compounds that are excreted in the urine
Liver excretion: produces urea-
produces urea from amino acids derived from protein catabolism
Urea is lost in:
the urine