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Exam 2

functions of stems

attachment & support of leaves, flowers, fruits


underground horizontal stem (different from roots - leaf scars, axillary buds, nodes, internodes)


storage organs at tip of underground stems (white potato)


pores all over the wood for cambium "breathing"

cell theory

if you slice smaller and smaller, the smallest reproducible unit is the cell

electron microscope vs light microscope

electron = 1 millionx


thick walls, dead at maturity, support & protection
wood, pits, seed covers


unevenly thick walls, alive, support of non-woody tissues
found on edges of non-woody stems


thin walled, metabolically active
food synthesis, storage, secretion

transfer cells

feathery finger-like ingrowths on parenchyma cells that provide short distance intensive transport
increase surface area of cell membrane


phloem is eaten away and roots cut off from sugar


packages stuff


makes proteins


wood, water transport


bark, sugar transport


storage sacs for sugars, pigments, waste


protection from grazers, found in acorns & olives


sugar manufacturing
CO2+H2O -> C6H12O6+O2


glucose+oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + ATP
cyanide blocks metabolic pathway


Ca-ox crystals that can be used to archaeology


photo-reversible molecule that picks up light
P-red -> P-far red


ovary w/ seed

climactic fruits

ripening w/ ethylene gas
apple, avocado, cantaloupe


plant growth regulator
bending towards light, redistribution of auxin to shaded side to create asymmetric growth

gibberellic acid

plant growth regulator, juvenility hormone, produced in the roots so oldest, lower branches of the tree are in juvenile phase, internode elongation

immobile nutrients

immobile in the phloem, symptoms will occur in young top leaves
Ca, B, Fe, S

mobile nutrients

mobile in the phloem, symptoms will occur in older bottom leaves


dry areas that are irrigated, combined w/ evaporation end up with salt soils -> decline in fertility


top layer of soil w/ the most organics
zone of leaching


mineral rich zone
zone of deposition


rocks, parent material

functions of roots

attract microbes

functions of leaves

manufacture food
absorb CO2
release water vapor
reflect light

central mother cell zone

center circular portion of cells in the middle of apical meristem, reserve of cells in case others get damaged

peripheral zone

most dense area of cells immediately surrounding the mid meristem - initiating ring
makes cortex, stem

rib meristem

lower center of stem, distinct empty cells in rows that make up the stalk
makes pith, stem

serially arranged supernumerary buds

stacked on top of one another - air potato, Bougainvillea

collaterally arranged supernumerary buds

aligned in a row along leaf scar - garlic

5 types of modified branches

fruit spurs, food storage (air potato, garlic), flowers, runners & stolons (strawberry), thorns (Bougainvillea)

4 characteristics of leaves

lateral organs of the shoot system
determinate (limited) growth
has an upper & lower side
arise superficially from shoot apex

leaf growth: marginal vs intercalary

marginal = broad leaves, dicots
intercalary = narrow leaves, monocots, grasses

differences beween monocot & dicot leaf anatomy

monocot veins are parallel
monocots have bulliform cells in upper epidermis
monocots have homogenous mesophyll (no upper & lower)
intercalary growth

characteristics of bogs

wet, low oxygen, mineral poor, rich in light, acidic, low decay rates
plants have minimal root systems & specialized leaf systems

Drosera (sundew)

sticky red trichomes on leaves attract & trap flies, leaf engulfs fly for nitrogen

Dionaea (venus fly trap)

red color inside leaf blade, when fly touches trigger hair twice trap closes

Sarracenia (pitcher plant)

leaves are conical & hold water
fly follows the red nectar guides down to the slippery cuticle where they grab onto downward pointing hairs & slip into the fluid & drown


plant that grows on another for support (usually sunlight), more prevalent in tropics because exposed roots mild climate

compensatory growth

one system makes up for lacking systems - epiphytes have increased leaf component & reduced root system

basket plant

funnel collects litter which decays & provides nutrients

tank epiphyte

bromeliads, cisterns, leaves closely associated on stem so water & litter collect
T-shaped hairs collect water

air plants

Spanish moss, dangles off branches, no roots, stem-branch-leaf system covered in t-shaped hairs to absorb runoff water

5 common features of roots

apical meristem is subterminal
apical meristem is covered by root cap
root hairs present
endogenous branching (branching starts vein)
xylem & phloem on alternate radii


single cell layer in the root cortex responsible for endogenous branching

root modifications

epiphytic orchids - climbing roots, photosynthesis, water storage
ficus - butress roots, stilt roots
mangrove - prop roots, cable roots, pneumatophores


orchid root epidermis multiplies into multiple epidermis
spongy, soaks up water

vascular cambium

ring of cells the differentiate into xylem & phloem
only found in dicots
tree rings

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