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Ms. Smith Biology Midterms

brittany hall
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Examples of a prokaryote
any bacteria
Does a prokaryote lack of?
nucleus, and membrane bound organelles.
Characteristics of a prokaryote
smaller and simpler than a eukaryote, and is a single cell organism
What kingdoms are inside of the prokaryote?
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Characteristics of a eukaryote
has a nucleus, has membrane bound organelles, larger than a prokaryote, more complex than a prokaryote, may be single celled or multi celled.
What kingdoms are inside an eukaryote?
1. Animalia
2. Plantae
3. Fungi
4. Protista
All cells have what 4 things?
cell membrane, DNA, ribosomes, and cytoplasm
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
ribosomes
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
cytoplasm or cytosol
portion of the cell outside the nucleus
cell theory
This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.
function of the cell membrane?
it protects the cell, it supports the cell (helps provide shape), it holds the cell together, and most importantly it controls what enters & leaves the cell.
what structures do prokaryotic cells contain?
pili, peptidoglycan, nucleoid, and small loops of DNA called plastids (not to be confused with the membrane bound organelles found in plant cells also called plastids).
what are pili?
Pili are short extentions of the cell membrane that allow bacteria cells to stick to surfaces and even to other cells.
what is peptidoglycan?
Peptidoglycan is a carbohydrate found between the cell wall and the cell membrane of some prokaryotes. This layer of peptidoglycan gives the cell extra protection from things that might harm the cell.
what is a nucleoid?
Since prokaryotes lack a nucleus, microbiologists use the term "nucleoid" to refer to the area around the DNA.
what is plastids?
Plastids are used during conjugation (a type of sexual reproduction) of bacteria cells.
what cellular structures are in both , eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
cilia, flagella, and cell walls
what do cilia or flagella do ?
Both cilia and flagella function in movement. They may either move the cell or move something across the surface of the cell. Both may be used for movement or for feeding, depending on the organism. Cilia are short, hairlike projections and usually form long rows along some or all of a cell's suface. Flagella are long, whiplike projections and may be found alone or in small groups on the surface of some cells.
what are cell walls?
The cell wall provides support and extra protection to cells that have this structure.
3 organelles that are in plant cells but not animal cells
chloroplasts, cell walls, and central vacuoles. The chloroplasts are responsible for performing photosynthesis. This process uses carbon dioxide and water to create organic molecules that provide energy for the cell. The central vacuole is often the largest organelle in the plant cell. It is filled with water and may contain waste waiting to be removed from the cell.
centrioles are unique to animal cells. what is centrioles function?
cell division
function of nucleus
The nucleus holds the DNA which controls cell function.
what is inside of the nucleus?
a dark region called the nucleolus where ribosomes are made.
function of rough ER?
Rough ER transport proteins to different parts of the cell
function of smooth ER?
smooth ER transports lipids and other substances.
function of golgi apparatus?
collect , package, and transport molecules in vesicles
function of vesicles?
Store materials and move materials into or out of the cell in bulk
function of mitochondria?
convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
what are lysosomes?
break down and recycle materials
microtubules
straight, hollow tubes of proteins that give rigidity, shape, and organization to a cell
the cytoskeleton is made up of what?
microtubules and microfibers
what is homeostasis?
The process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
what is diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
what is osmosis?
The movement of water from a region of low solute concentration to high solute concentration.
passive transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
which increases faster than the other, volume or surface area?
volume
function of carbohydrates?
Supply energy
how to maintain homeostasis?
insulin provides glucose (energy), for cells
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
lipids
store energy
photosynthesis
the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy
process of respiration
the fuel (such as glucose) is oxidized (loses H atoms and electrons) and oxygen is reduced (gains H atoms and electrons)
atp
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
adp
adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups
Molecules move from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration through the process of ?
active transport
statement describes a cell after it has been placed in a sugar solution
it is larger because sugar entered the cell by diffusion
A red blood cell placed in a hypertonic solution will
shrink
(hyper)tonic = shrink
(iso)tonic= no changes
A pouch of syrup is placed in a container of water. The pouch is permeable to water, but impermeable to syrup. The movement of particles across the membrane is the result of
osmosis
A cell that is capable of carrying out both photosynthesis and respiration is probably a
plant cell
ACGCAGT
what is the corresponding RNA
UGCGUCA
A-U
G-C
C-G
G-C
A-U
C-G
A-T
DNA is made up of
sugar and phosphates
The DNA code eventually directs the cell to manufacture
protein
function of proteins in living organisms
catalyze chemical reactions.
what is DNA fingerprinting?
a way of figuring out a specific person or thing
The long, thin molecule that makes up a chromosome is called
DNA
Name three ways in which sexual reproduction increases genetic variability within populations.
independent assortment of chromosomes, crossing over, and random fertilization.