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Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks
Terms in this set (45)
What is a Rock?
A naturally formed solid that it made of up of one or more type of minerals or organic matter
How are rocks classified?
By composition (chemicals that make up the rock) and texture (size and shape of grains in rock)
What are igneous rocks?
Formed by magma and lava that cools and solidifies
What is magma?
Molten rock below the earth's surface
What is lava?
Magma that has come to the earth's surface
What is pyroclastic material?
Ash and lava fragments at which common silicates change from liquid to solid
What is Bowten's reaction series?
Describes the temperatures at which common silicates change from liquid to solid
In general ___________ temperature minerals have more _________ and ____________ in them and less ______.
Describe Mafic rocks.
-Made up of Magnesium + Ferric
-Darker in color
-Low viscosity (quick)
__________ Temperatures generally mean they are high in ______________ and _____________.
Describe Felsic rocks.
-Made up of Feldspar and Silicon
-Lower in Iron and Magnesium
-Lighter in color
-Determined by cooling rate
-Faster cooling means smaller crystals
-Slower cooling means bigger crystals
-Crystals are easily seen with the naked eye
-Intrusive (Formed in the ground)
-Crystals are not visible
-Extrusive (Formed above ground)
Contain both small and large crystals. Magma is cooled in two stages (One Below, One Above Ground)
Extrusive rocks that cool so fast crystals can not form
Means having cavities (vessicles) in the rock. It is very common in aphanitic and glassy rocks
What are Metamorphic rocks?
Rocks that have changed from their original form (parent rock) by heat and pressure in to a new rock. (Daughter rock)
What are index minerals?
-Help us determine the temperature and pressure at which the rock formed
-Used to determine the degree of metamorphism the rock has undergone
What is Metamorphic Grade?
The relative temperature and pressure under which metamorphic rocks form.
What is Regional Metamorphism?
-Most common form of Metamorphism
-Caused by heat and pressure
-Commonly associated with subduction zones where plates collide (Mountain Building)
What is Contact Metamorphism?
-Caused by igneous activity (heat)
-Rocks come into contact with magma and the heat "cooks" the rock
Metamorphic rocks can be ___________ or _______________.
Describe a Foliated Metamorphic Rock.
-Result of direct pressure
-Caused by Regional Metamorphism
Describe a Non-Foliated Metamorphic Rock.
-Formed around ares where temperatures are high and there is low pressure in all directions
-Caused by Contact Metamorphism
What are Sediments?
Sediments are formed by weathering, erosion, and deposition.
How can sediments be classified?
By their size
List these Sedimentary Rocks from Smallest to Largest:
Sand, Clay, Silt, Gravel
Clay, Silt, Sand, Gravel
Sediment size tends to ___________ as transport distance _________________.
Describe a Clastic Sedimentary Rock.
-Made from sediments that come from pre-existing rocks that have been weathered and eroded than glued together
What is Lithification?
Compaction and Cementation are occuring
Coarse, Angular shaped rock fragments
Medium-grained clastic sedimentary rock
-Slightly coarser-grained than shales
-Does not split layers (No fissility)
-Splits into thin layers (Fissile)
-Sediment deposited in lake bottoms, river deltas, floodplains, and on deep ocean floor
Describe Chemical Sedimentary Rocks.
-Made from mineral crystals that formed from chemicals dissolved in water
-Water evaporates leaving the solids behind
Describe Organic Sedimentary Rocks.
Made up of the remains of once-living plants and animals (organic matter)
Which 2 types of sedimentary rocks are Non-Clastic?
Chemical and Organic
Name the 4 sedimentary structures.
-Ripple Marks-ridges made from wind and water
-Laminations-flow and wind deposit
-Mud Cracks-drying mud
-Fossils-traces of plants or animals preserved in rock
What is the parent rock of Marble?
What is the parent rock of Gneiss?
What is the parent rock of Slate?
What is the parent rock of Phyllite?
What is the parent rock of Quartzite?
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