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75 terms

Post - Test Science - Mitchell Hall

SCIENCE DATA/ Mitchell Hall
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carbohydrates
a sugar or starch, which living things use for energy
development
the changes that occur as a living thing grows
digestion
process by which living things break down food
nutrients
any chemical found in foods that are needed by a living thing
organelles
tiny structures inside a cell
organs
group of different tissues that work together
protiens
chemical used by living things to build and repair body parts and regulate body activities
reproduction
process by which living things produce offspring
cell
the basic unit of life
organism
living thing that can carry out all the basic life activities
property
a quality that describes an object
chloroplast
captures light energy from the sun to make food
nucleus
information and control center of a cell
vacuole
stores substances such as food, water, and waste products
cell membrane
thin layer that surrounds and holds a cell together, decides what can enter or leave a cell
metamorphosis
a major change in form that occurs as some animal develop into adults
vertebra
one of the bones or blocks of cartilage that makes up the backbone
habitat
place where an organism lives
chromosome
a rod-shaped structure that contains DNA and is found in the nucleus of a cell
enviornment
an organism's surroundings
endangered species
there are almost no animals left of the species
biome
an ecosystem found over a large geographic area
consumer
an organism that feeds on other organisms
resource
a thing that an organism uses to live
ecosystem
interactions among the populations of a community and non-living things in their enviornment
extinct
when all members of a species are dead
pollution
anything added to the environment that is harmful to living things
community
group of different populations that live in the same area
ecology
the study of the interactions among living things and the non-living things in their environment
amphibian
a vertebrate that lives at first in the water then on land
reptile
an egg laying vertebrate that breathes with lungs
gill
structure used by some animals to breathe in water
cellular respiration
the process in which cells break down food to release energy
stamen
the male organ of reproduction of the flower
pollen
tiny grains containing sperm
pistle
female organ of reproduction in the flower
ovary
lower part of the pistle that contains the egg
nectar
a sweet liquid that many kinds of flowers produce
germinate
start to grow into a new plant
psuedopod
part of some one celled organisms that sticks out like a foot to move the cell along
clone
in horticulture and biology, any organism whose genetic information is identical to that of a "mother organism" from which it was created
cystic fibrosis
is a genetic disorder known to be an inherited disease of the secretory glands, including the glands that make mucus and sweat.
DNA
is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses
gene
The DNA segments that carries genetic information
dominant gene
If an organism inherits two alleles that are at odds with one another, and the phenotype of the organism is determined completely by one of the alleles, then that allele is said to be dominant
Downs syndrome
is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome.. Often Down syndrome is associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth as well as facial appearance
generation
a stage or degree in a succession of natural descent
heredity
is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors
inheretance
the genetic characters transmitted from parent to offspring, taken collectively
mutation
are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism
offspring
child or animal in relation to its parent or parents
protein
the plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules, considered as a food source supplying essential amino acids to the body
recessive gene
A gene that is phenotypically expressed in the homozygous state but has its expression masked in the presence of a dominant gene
species
the major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species
virus
is a microscopic infectious agent that can reproduce only inside a host cell.
enzymes
any of various proteins originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion
glucose
a simple sugar, is a very important carbohydrate in biology. The living cell uses it as a source of energy
galactose
is a type of sugar which is less sweet than glucose. It is considered a nutritive sweetener because it has food energy
lactose
is a sugar that is found most notably in milk
cholesterol
a sterol that occurs in all animal tissues, esp. in the brain, spinal cord, and adipose tissue, functioning chiefly as a protective agent in the skin and myelin sheaths of nerve cells
brain
the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter
nerve cells
a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites
tumor
abnormal growth of a mass of cells in the body
cancer
disorderly growth of cells in body tissue
carcinogens
subtances that cause cancer
veins
one of the system of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood from various parts of the body to the heart.
arteries
system of branching vessels or tubes conveying blood away from heart.
hemoglobin
the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells that gives them their red color and serves to convey oxygen to the tissues
blood
the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of human beings and other vertebrates, in humans consisting of plasma in which the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended.
plasma
the liquid part of blood or lymph, as distinguished from the suspended elements
mitosis
the usual method of cell division
classification
the assignment of organisms to groups within a system of categories distinguished by structure, origin, etc
antibodies
protein molecules produced by B cells as a primary immune defense
synthesis
the combining of the constituent elements of separate material or abstract entities into a single or unified entity
disease
a disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect of genetic or developmental errors; an illness; sickness; ailment