125 terms

Kinesiology Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
• "Golden Age" of physical education and sport
• Unity of the mind, body and spirit
• "Body beautiful"
• Areté - the pursuit of excellence
Greece
• Exercise for health and military purposes.
• Greek gymnastics were introduced to Rome after the conquest of Greece but were not popular.
o Rome did not believe in the "body beautiful"
o Preferred to be spectators rather than participants
o Preferred professionalism to amateurism.
• Exciting "blood sports":
o Gladiatorial combats and chariot races
o "Duel to the death" or satisfaction of spectators
Rome
• Period of nationalism - focus on development of strong citizens through school and community programs of physical education.
• Physical education should be included in the school curriculum - programs emphasize the development of strength
Germany
• Scientific study of physical education
• Used anatomy and physiology to study the effects of physical education on the body.
• Less emphasis on strength than German approach
• Influenced by nationalism
Sweden
• Franz Nachtegall (1777-1847) - "father" of Danish gymnastics.
o Worked with Danish public schools to incorporate PE into their curriculum.
o Established a school to train teachers of gymnastics for the army and for the schools.
o Gymnastics emphasized fitness and strength, with formalized exercises being performed on command
Denmark
• Home of outdoor sports and recreational pursuits.
• Maclaren (1920-1884)
o Eager to make physical training a science; system adopted by the British Army.
o Health is more important than strength.
o Exercise adapted to the individual.
o Physical education essential in school curriculum.
• Muscular Christianity
o Sport contributes to the development of moral character.
o Reconciles sport and religion
Great Britain
• Colonists led an agrarian existence - physical activity through performing tasks essential to living and survival.
• Colonists brought sports with them from their native lands.
• Puritans denounced play as evil; recreational pursuits frowned upon.
• Reading, writing, and arithmetic in schools, not physical education.
Colonial Period
- introduced German gymnastics to his students at the Round Hill School.
Charles Beck (National Period)
organized exercise classes based on the German system for his students at Harvard University
Charles Follen (National)
developed a program of calisthenics performed to music, which included Swedish exercises, to improve the health and vitality of her students at the Hartford Female Seminary.
Catherine Beecher
• 1839 - Invention of baseball
• 1851 - first national Turnfest held in Philadelphia.
• 1852: First intercollegiate competition: a crew race between Harvard and Yale. Intercollegiate athletics becomes increasingly common on college campuses.
• Horseracing, foot races, rowing, and gambling on sport events were popular.
National Period
o Developed system of "light" gymnastics
o 1861 - established Normal Institute for Physical Education in Boston to train teachers
Dioclesian Lewis (Civil War Period)
o 1861 - Director of Hygiene and Physical Education at Amherst College
o Pioneering work in the scientific approach to PE
o Anthropomorphic measurement incorporated into program to assess outcomes.
o 1885 - First president of the Association for the Advancement of Physical Education.
Edward Hitchcock (Civil War)
o 1879 - Director of Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard University.
o Scientific and comprehensive approach to physical education; used anthropomorphic measurement to develop individualized conditioning programs for students.
o 1881 - Sanatory Gymnasium to prepare teachers in his approach.
Dudley Sargent (Civil War)
o Played an instrumental role in the founding of the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education in 1885.
o 1885 - Director of Physical Training at Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn.
William Anderson (Civil War)
o 1885 - Accepted teaching position at Oberlin College where, in 1903, she became the first woman full professor of physical education in the US.
o Developed training program for prospective teachers which evolved into one of the first professional preparation programs.
Delphina Hanna (Civil War)
o Research physiologist at Harvard.
o Emphasized the need for physical education programs to be based on scientific principles so that the actual benefits of exercise could be determined.
o 1892 - established a formal exercise physiology lab at Harvard where he and his students conducted research on physiological effects of physical activity
George Fitz (Civil War)
o Pioneered in the promotion of Swedish system of gymnastics in the US.
o 1891-1990 Leadership role in physical education for the Boston Public School System where he influenced adoption of Swedish gymnastics
Hartvig Nissen (Civil War)
o Leader in the promotion of Swedish system of gymnastics in the US.
o 1889 - helped establish the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics to train teachers in the Swedish system
Baron Nils Posse (Civil War)
o 1889 - Director of the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics.
o Mary Hemenway, Bostonian philanthropist, underwrote the establishment of the school.
o Played an influential role in getting the Boston Public School system to adopt the Swedish system of gymnastics
Amy Morris Homans (Civil War)
o Instrumental role in YMCA International Training School at Springfield, MA.
o Designed the YMCA logo, with the equilateral triangle representing the unity of the mind, body and spirit and importance of developing the whole person.
o 1906 - helps form the Playground Association of America.
Luther Gulick (Civil War)
• Extensive interscholastic programs - controversy over programs for girls.
• Growth of intramural programs and emphasis on games and sports in our programs.
• Increased concern for the physically underdeveloped in our society.
• Playground movement.
• Higher standards for teacher training (4 year preparation).
• NCAA established to monitor collegiate athletics.
Early Twentieth Century Period
o Called for the development of a "new" program of physical education, initially called "Natural Gymnastics".
o His vision for "new" physical education calls for a program with an: "aim as broad as education itself..."
Thomas Dennison Wood (Early Twenty)
o Physician, physical educator, and noted artist-sculptor.
o Helped develop physical education programs for individuals with disabilities.
o Authored many books, including Exercise in Education and Medicine
Robert Tait McKenzie (Early Twenty)
o 1910 - articulates the four objectives of physical education as organic (fitness), psychomotor development, character development, and intellectual development.
o Credited with inventing the phrase "new physical education" to describe Wood's approach
Clark Hetherington (Early Twenty)
o Advocate of "education through the physical" - carefully designed programs of physical education could contribute to the development of the whole person.
o Prolific writer.
Rosalind Cassidy (Early Twenty)
o Advocate of "education through the physical" philosophy of physical education.
o Stressed the development of social responsibility and moral values through physical education and athletics.
o 1927 - Principles of Physical Education
Jesse F. Williams (Early Twenty)
o Physical education should give students the ability to use their leisure time in a worthy manner.
o Recreational skills for enjoyment throughout the lifespan.
Jay B. Nash (Early Twenty)
o Active in research and measurement, including anthropometry.
o Advocated for the "education of the physical" approach to physical education.
o School physical education's unique contribution to the education of the individual is organic and psychomotor development.
o Wrote Philosophical Bases for Physical Education
Charles McCloy (Early Twenty)
• Physical educators developed conditioning programs for armed forces.
• After the war, health statistics revealed that the nation was in poor shape (1/3 of men were physically unfit for armed service).
• Growth and upgrade of PE programs in schools following war due to legislation in some states
World War I Period
• Move away from formal systems of gymnastics toward games, sports, and valuable recreation and leisure time.
• "New" physical education emphasized contribution to the total development of the individual; "education through the physical" vs. "education of the physical".
• Calls for reform of collegiate athletics due to increasing professionalism, public entertainment, and commercialization.
• Women's programs increase staff, activities, required participation, and facilities.
Golden Twenties Period
• Economic forces lead to cutbacks in PE programs and growth of recreational programs.
• Physical educators more involved in recreational programs for the unemployed.
• Growth of interscholastic, intercollegiate and women's programs.
• Charles McCloy (1886-1959) - advocated "education of the physical" and stressed the importance documenting results and measuring progress of using scientific data
Depression Years Period
• Impact of WW II physical training programs.
• Physical fitness movement.
o President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
• Athletics
o Increased opportunities for girls and women.
o Increased interest in lifetime sports.
o Sport programs below high school level increased.
o Increased number of intramural programs
• Professional preparation
o Colleges and universities increase programs for teachers
o American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
o National Athletic Trainers' Association (1950)
• Programs for individuals with disabilities
o Special Olympics (1968)
• Research grows in importance and becomes increasingly specialized
Mid-Twentieth Century
Neurophysiological and behavioral processes affecting the control of skilled movements
Motor Control
Acquisition of motor skills as a result of practice and experience
Motor Learning
Origins of and changes in movement behavior throughout the lifespan and affected by the movement task, individual biology, and environment conditions
Motor Development
Relatively permanent change in behavior or performance as a result of instruction, experiences, study, and/or practice
Learning
Stages of Learning
Cognitive Stage
Associative Stage
Autonomous Stage
Cognitive Stage
- understanding the nature and goal of the activity
- initial attempts at the skill -- gross errors
Associative Stage
o Practice on mastering the timing of the skill
o Fewer and more consistent errors
Autonomous Stage
o Well coordinated and appears effortless
o Few errors
o "Automatic" performance lets attention be directed to other aspects of performance
Factors Influencing Learning
Readiness
Motivation
Reinforcement
Individual difference
physiological and psychological factors influencing an individual's ability and willingness to learn
Readiness
a condition within an individual that initiates activity directed toward a goal. Concern with initiation, maintenance, and intensity of behavior
Motivation
using events, actions, and behaviors to increase the likelihood of a certain response recurring. May be positive or negative
Reinforcement
backgrounds, abilities, intelligence, learning styles, and personalities of learners
Individual Difference
skills that are performed in an unpredictable environment
open skills
environment remains relatively stable during the performance of the skill
closed skills
o Examples: walking, running, jumping, hopping, leaping, sliding, skipping, galloping, dodging
Locomotor
o Examples: bending, stretching, pushing, pulling, twisting, turning, swinging
Nonlocomotor
o Examples: throwing, catching, striking, kicking, dribbling, volleying
Manipulative
- scientific study of human movement
- anatomical and physiological elements that carry out movements
Kinesiology
The application of the principles of mechanical physics to understand movements and actions of human bodies and sport implements
Biomechanics
Mechanical Principles Related to Movement
Stability
Motion
Leverage
Force
o The lower the center of gravity to the base of support, the greater the stability
o The nearer the center of gravity to the center of the base of support, the more stable the body
o can be increased by widening the base of support
Stability
• A body at rest will remain at rest or a body in motion will remain in motion in the same speed and direction unless it is acted upon by another force
Newton's First Law - Law of Inertia
• A change in velocity of an object is directly proportional to the force producing it and inversely proportional to the objects mass
Newton's Second Law - Law of Acceleration
• For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Newton's Third Law - Law of Action and Reaction
movement in a straight line and from one point to another
linear motion
movement of a body around a center of rotation - the axis
rotary motion
mechanical device used to produce a turning motion around a fixed point called an axis
lever
center or axis of rotation (joint)
fulcrum
distance from the fulcrum to the point of application of the force (muscle)
force arm
distance from the fulcrum to the weight on which the force is acting (bone)
resistance arm
o Fulcrum between the weight and the force
o Will typically produce speed and strength
o Ex. Seesaw
First class lever
o Weight is between the fulcrum and the force
o Will produce force
o Ex. Wheelbarrow
Second class lever
o Force is between the fulcrum and the weight
o Will produce speed and range of motion
o Ex. Man rowing a boat
Third class lever
the effect that one body has on another; invisible but always present when motion occurs
force
Produced by the actions of muscles. The stronger the muscles, the more force the body can produce
production of force
The force of an object is most effective when it is applied in the direction that the object is to travel
application of force
The impact of a force should be gradually reduced ("give with the force") and spread over a large surface
absorption of force
produced through the use of instruments
Quantitative analysis
produced through the observation of the mover
Qualitative analysis
Study of factors relating to nonmoving systems or those characterized by steady motion, such as center of gravity in positions of balance
Statics
Study of mechanical factors that relate to systems in motion
Dynamics
time and space - velocity (change in speed or direction) and acceleration (change in velocity)
Kinematics
study of forces that act on a system; cause or inhibit motion - forces such as gravity and muscles
Kinetics
speed and direction of the body
velocity
change in velocity involving the speed or direction
acceleration
angle that is rotated in a given unit of time
angular velocity
change of angular velocity for a unit of time
angular acceleration
amount of matter possessed by an object
mass
resistance of an object with an effort to move it
inertia
any action that changes or tends to change the motion of an object
force
ratio of force to the area over which force is applied
pressure
natural force that pulls all objects toward the center of the earth
gravity
point at which all of the bodies mass seems to be located and the point about which an object would balance; center of gravity can change/move
center of gravity
force that occurs when surfaces come in contact and results from the sliding of one surface on the other
friction
force that is applied to a body through a distance and in direction of the force
work
amount of work accomplished in one unit of time
power
capacity of the body to perform work
energy
energy in motion
kinetic energy
energy that accrues or is gained as a result of the position the body occupies relative to the earths surface
potential energy
twisting, turning, or rotary force related to the production of angular acceleration
torque
the study of the effects of exercise on the body
exercise physiology
Focuses on the assessments of cardiovascular functioning and on the effectiveness of various exercise programs in preventing cardiovascular disease and rehabilitating individuals suffering from the disease
Cardiac Rehabilitation
Examines the effects of exercise at the cellular level, specifically within the muscle cell
Exercise Biochemistry
Studies the relationship between physical activity and mortality.
Exercise Epidemiology
Studies the response of the body to exercise during childhood, including the effects of growth and maturation and how responses differ between children and adults
Pediatric Exercise
• Ability of the body's systems to function efficiently and effectively
Physical Fitness
Health Related Components of Fitness
Body Composition
Cardiorespiratory endurance
Flexibility
Muscular endurance
Muscular strength
Performance/Skill Components of Fitness
Agility
Balance
Coordination
Speed
Reaction time
Power
o Without oxygen
o High energy expenditure, short time (6-60 seconds)
o Any type of sprint (running, swimming, cycling)
o Short duration (sprints, shot-put) or power, quick explosive activities (football/gymnastics movements)
Anaerobic
o With oxygen
o Lower rate of energy expenditure, longer period of time (more than 3 minutes)
Aerobic
to gain improvements in health and fitness, and increased workload must be placed on the body
Principle of Overload
training must occur with the specific muscle or body part the person is attempting to improve
Principle of Specificity
overload should be applied gradually, and steadily increased as the body adapts
Principle of Progression
as fitness increases, gains achieved become less and less as individuals approach limits of adaptability
Principle of Diminishing Returns
helps maintain individuals' interest and provides a change of pace while continuing to make progress toward desired goals
Principle of Variation
"use it or lose it" - inactivity leads to gradual erosion of benefits achieved
Principle of Reversibility
individuals respond differently to exercise and will vary in their rate of improvement and levels of achievement
Principle of Individuality
rest allows the body to recover and adapt to the changes placed on it
Principle of Recovery
safety is important
Principle of safety
Minimal level of exercise needed to achieve desired benefits
threshold of training
Defines the upper limits of training and the optimal level of exercise
target zone
FITT
• Frequency - number of sessions each week (ex. How often)
• Intensity - degree of effort put forth during exercise (ex. How hard)
• Time - duration of activity (ex. How long)
• Type - mode of exercise being performed
Benefits of efficient cardiorespiratory function
• Body's ability to deliver oxygen effectively to the working muscles to perform physical activity
• Most important component of health fitness
• Helps prevent hypokinetic disease
• Concerned with the aerobic efficiency of the body
caloric intake equals expenditure
neutral balance
more calories consumed than expended
positive balance
more calories are expended than consumed
negative balance
o Muscle exerts force against an immovable object
-Static contraction
Isometric exercises
o Force is generate while the muscle is changing in length
o Concentric and eccentric contractions
Isotonic exercises
o Contractions are performed at a constant velocity
Isokinetic exercises
Types of Nutrients
• Carbohydrates
• Fats
• Proteins
• Vitamins
• Minerals
• Water
Dietary Guidelines
• Balance calories to manage weight through appropriate eating and physical activity practices
• Reduce the amount of sodium, saturated fats, and sugars that are consumed and limit alcohol intake to 1-2 drinks per day
• Increase the amount of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk, dietary fibers, seafood and other proteins, and oils consumed per day/week
• Build a healthy eating pattern/plan