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examples of monosaccharides

glucose and fructose

sugars always have one ______ group


if you have a carbonyl group at the end of the chain, u have _________

an aldehyde

if u have a sugar on one of the middle carbons, u have _______

a ketone

what are the covalent bonds that join larger sugars called?

glycosidic linkages


disaccharide formed by joining two glucose molecules together


disaccharide formed by joining glucose and fructose together

examples of polysaccharides

glycogen, starch, cellulose


three fatty acids joined by ester linkages to one glycerol molecule

phospholipids contain

glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing alcohol like lecithin


esters of fatty acids and alcohols


three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring

examples of steroids

cholesterol in membranes, estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, bile


containe conjugated double bonds and carry six-membered c arbon rings at each end

hormonal protein

function: chemical messengers>insulin, glucagon

transport protein

function: transport of other substances>hemoglobin, carrier proteins

structural prtoein

function: physical support>collagen

contractile protein

function: movement>actin, myosin


function: immune defense>immunoglobins

enzyme proteins

biological catalysts>amylase, lipase, ATPase


smallest side chain, with only a hydrogen

tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, alanine and valine

hydrophobic side chains

aspartate and glutamate

carboxylic acid side chains that are deprotonated to have a negative charge at normal body pH

lysine and arginine

basic amine groups that accept protons at normal body pH levels

serine, threonine and tyrosine

have hydroxyl grorups that can be modified with phosphate groups to regulate the activity of proteins


has a sulfhydryl group that will reat with other cysteins in a protein to crreate disulfide bridges that stabilize protein structure

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