Technical Elements of Film
Terms in this set (24)
Depth of Field
The zone of focus (near/far) between objects within an image that appears acceptably sharp.
Speed or light passing power of a lens; ranked in a scale: 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22 (32, 64).
The distance from the lens to the focal plane when the lens is focused on an object at infinity (200mm, 50mm, 14mm). Measures the power of a lens and ability to bed light rays coming from the subject; shorter the focal length the GREATER the bending power (18mm - 5mm).
The camera lens squeezes the picture horizontally before recording an image so it will fit in the smaller 35mm film frame. Theat film must then be projected back with an anamorphic lens to un-scrunch the film.
Wide Screen dimensions means, 1) Standard is 1.78:1, Cinema Standard is 1.85:1, and Cinema Scope is 2.35: 1.
Standard Definition Television Screen
Digital time-stamp added to each video frame upon recording to assist in audio/video sync as well as logging and cutting media. This can be burned in or superimposed on video.
Society of Motion Picture & Television Engineers; established standards for broadcasting media to streamline settings and set a baseline for view expectations.
(optional) Records timecode embedded data in each frame; outside the picture area on videotapes. (+) can be read when VTR is stopped, doesn't use audio tracks. (-) cannot be added later post-filming, not visible during high speed playback.
(optional) Longitudinal track just for timecode, which can be added or changed after a video is shot. A form of audio timecode.
Regenerate the code while dubbing and be sure it is sync-locked to video. Used when sending out a rough cut for review by client, or when sending a fine cut for a composer to make a score.
Required Elements of a Motion Picture Camera
Lens, Lens Mount, Viewfinder, Film Chamber, Motor, Film Gate and Pull-down Claw, Registration Pin, and Shutter
Determining Motion Picture Shutter Speed
1) The intensity of light passing through the lens; 2) the amount of time an image is exposed: (1/FPS) x (Angle of Shutter/360) = Shutter Speed. For example: (1/24fps) x (180/360) = 1/48 Shutter Speed
Shutter rotates allowing viewfinder to show the image; typically angled to 1/3 or 1/2 of a pie (thus the 180-degree shutter angle). This mirrored shutter allows the viewfinder to light up with an image. Ironically, when you can see through the viewfinder is when the shutter is blocking the lens from striking the film frame.
Diverts some light from the film (16mm or 35mm) camera to an attached small video camera that allows you to watch the image on a monitor and/or record it on video. Low-quality approximation of what is being recorded on film.
Single System Recording
Recording video with sound all in the same device (camera).
Dual System Recording
Double system recording video on one device and audio on a second device.
Optical phenomenon where less light reaches the edge of the image than the center. Loss of light toward the edge of the frame.
Optical phenomenon where the image, lightens up blacks, increases the appearance of grain, decreases sharpness, softens edges of backlight figures. Occurs when light source is captured through the lens. Multiple pieces of glass cause reflections.
Optical phenomenon where light passes through a small hole scatters and renders image unsharp. Iris opening of tf/16 or smaller may cause loss of sharpness. Wide angle lenses are at risk when stopped all the way down.
A lens aberration where light rays of different colors bend at different angles; causes a rainbow fringe.
A lens aberration where the light of vertical lines focus in a different plane than horizontal lines.
This will make lines appear bowed inward toward the center.
This will make lines bow away from the center
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Phases of Production
Video Format Information
Advanced Camera Settings
Advanced Video Format